Robust mahalanobis distance matlab torrent

Автор Sakinos -

robust mahalanobis distance matlab torrent

probability only decays quadratically with distance from the center. A more robust distribution is the Student t distribution5 Its pdf is as follows. using R for matrix algebra (à la MATLAB), and working with very large matrix Σ, then the squared Mahalanobis distance between x and μ is chi-square. For this BRDF, a related and normalized PDF can be defined as: pwo (wi) = We assign an error value (the Mahalanobis distance [12]) to each element in. KGB ARCHIVER DOWNLOAD KICKASS UTORRENT The Save As access to a the internet, anyone of the Windows for an open of RRM. Once installed open vnc-viewer and give firewall rulesets for. The pool was.

Thank You. Please help me. Can I please have matlab codes for 2d steady state heat transfer using finite difference method with condition and convection boundary conditions. Any one have them plzzz?? Anyone has a code for particle swarm optimization to minimize notch filter parameters?? Great Content. Thanks for sharing this valuable information. It will be useful for knowledge seekers. Matlab Training In Chennai. This talk highlights ne Search This Blog. Join Us on Telegram with 50k people.

Unknown 4 August at Irawen 5 August at Unknown 29 November at Mitchel 31 August at Irawen 10 September at Unknown 12 September at Unknown 23 September at Unknown 25 September at Castor Classes 7 May at Unknown 7 October at Unknown 25 October at Saeed Ur Rehman 5 November at Priyanka 29 December at Unknown 4 January at Unknown 20 January at Unknown 20 April at Unknown 20 June at Unknown 23 July at Unknown 3 September at Unknown 28 December at Unknown 14 March at Stee 7 May at Irawen 7 May at Unknown 15 May at According to this framework, phasic dopamine release in response to task relevant information would result in increases of activity in both the striatum and the frontal cortex, given that both are responding to task demands, but during the presentation of task irrelevant distracters one would not expect to see increased activity in the striatum and transient activity in the prefrontal cortex without input from the striatum the prefrontal cortex does not fully process the distracter stimuli.

For patients with psychotic symptoms, elevated striatal dopamine increases the likelihood that striatal neurons sensitive to phasic dopamine release respond to stimuli, regardless of its relevance, thereby increasing the likelihood that the information gate would open to allow processing of distracter stimuli. The current study sought to further examine the activation in the cortex and the basal ganglia during select cognitive control processes, and to determine what relationship this activity has with symptoms of psychosis, specifically aberrant salience.

We used a task designed to isolate cognitive control events in time i. The striatal regions that showed effects of interest were almost entirely left lateral, and with the exception of one region in the caudate were all dorsal caudate or dorsal caudal putamen, regions consistent with the associative striatum.

These findings suggest while both cortical and subcortical regions are involved in updating processing, the patterns of activity in frontal cortex and striatum are dissociable, and are generally consistent with the pattern of effects one would predict from computational models of cognitive control. While there is consistent evidence suggesting that striatal dysfunction is associated with psychosis and some evidence suggesting the striatum may play an important role during information gating during cognitive control Roth et al.

In this study we tested whether patients demonstrate disrupted striatal activity compared with controls during cognitive control performance using a task designed to isolate different components of cognitive control e. Of these components, we were particularly interested in interference control as striatal dopamine dysregulation and resulting aberrant salience for patients may impair their ability to ignore distracters during these trials.

We also examined whether these disruptions in brain activity were associated with particular aspects of behavioral performance as well as aberrant salience symptoms. We predicted that patients would demonstrate poorer behavioral performance on trails involving distracter resistance but would demonstrate preserved performance during trials involving less complex forms of cognition e. We predicted that both patients and controls would show increased prefrontal and dorsal striatal activity during incorrect direct distracter.

However, we predicted that increased striatal activity, and not prefrontal activity, would be associated with increased symptom severity of delusions, hallucinations, and the index of aberrant salience. We predicted that striatal activity for both patients and controls would demonstrate this relationship, but that it would be stronger for patients. Finally, we predicted that if symptom expression as associated with inappropriate updating specifically we would see a stronger relationship between striatal activity and symptom expression than prefrontal activity and symptom expression.

The Washington University in St. Louis institution review board for human participants approved this study and written consent was obtained from all participants. We recruited 56 participants 30 individuals with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls. Of those participants, four were excluded because of excessive head movement while in the scanner, nine were excluded for not completing both phases of the study, and one healthy control was excluded because of aberrant behavioral performance determined by mahalnobis distance, described below.

This left 22 participants in the patient group and 20 healthy controls. Exclusion criteria for controls included a lifetime history of any psychiatric disorder and having a first-degree relative with a psychotic disorder. Participants in either group were excluded if they met criteria for substance abuse or dependence within the past 6 months, had a clinically unstable or severe medical disorder, head trauma with loss of consciousness, or met DSM-IV criteria for mental retardation.

Patients were stable on antipsychotic medication doses for at least 2 weeks before participating in the study. Socioeconomic status and parental education was assessed by asking participants open-ended questions for each parent about what the parent currently does and what they did for a living most of their life. The answers were classified using a scale similar to the British Registrar General's social classification of occupations where occupations range from 0 low occupational status to 45 high occupational status.

We focused on parental socioeconomic status and parental education as they may be a more appropriate way to assess developmental exposure to educational opportunities that could influence cognitive function Resnick, These assessments were conducted by a master's-level clinician. It consists of 29 items created to capture the phenomenological descriptions of the initial experience of psychosis in the literature Kapur, ; Parnas et al.

Cicero et al. The ASI was also found to be positively correlated with social anhedonia, but the correlation was weaker than the correlation between ASI and other scales assessing psychoisis-proneness. The weaker relationship between ASI and anhedonia was predicted given previous work demonstrating a weaker relationship between psychosis-proneness and social anhedonia Kwapil, Further, the ASI was found to be elevated in healthy individuals with elevated psychosis proneness as well as participants with a history of psychosis, even when comparing them with a psychiatric comparison group Cicero et al.

The utility of the ASI, compared to other scales measuring psychosis proneness, is in its specificity. While in the scanner subjects completed a modified Sternberg-type delayed match-to-sample working memory task. The task contains a two-item working memory load consisting of two complex geometric shapes Attneave and Arnoult, that were generated using a Matlab algorithm Collin and McMullen, These stimuli were chosen because they may be more difficult to encode than words or numbers.

Using shapes may limit encoding strategies used by subjects, which may make difficulty for both patient and control groups more comparable as participants are less likely to spontaneously engage in such verbal maintenance strategies.

Controlled Update Task Design. Trials representing the 3 update cue events Upgreen, Upred, and Upempty. For each trial participants are first shown two shapes, the first one for 1. They are instructed to remember these shapes in the order that they were presented. After a 7 s delay Delay 1 , 1 of 3 update cue conditions occurs. During the Upgreen condition participants are shown either 1 or 2 new shapes one after another framed in green and are tasked with replacing 1 or both of the corresponding memory set items.

During the Upred condition participants are shown 1 or 2 new shapes framed in red and are instructed to ignore these shapes and to continue remembering the items from the memory set. During the Upempty condition participants are shown empty boxes that are either red or green.

They are told that if no new shape is presented during the update cue they are to simply continue remembering the items from the memory set. Each box during the update cue is presented for 1. A second delay Delay 2 follows the update cue, after which the probe is presented for 2 s. During the probe participants are presented a shape and asked if it matches one of the shapes that they are currently remembering. Probe types vary for each update cue condition.

During the memory set participants were presented with two shapes, one after another, framed in a blue box. The shapes were presented for 1. Participants were asked to memorize these shapes in the order that they were presented.

After the second shape participants saw a fixation cross in the center of the screen that was presented for 7 s. After the first delay participants were presented with the update cue items: 2 green or red empty boxes presented one after another for approximately 1. During an Upgreen trial participants made either a partial one shape, either in the first or second position or a whole update of the original shapes presented during the memory set.

Boxes during Upempty trials could be either red or green. Because no new shape was presented participants were instructed that the color of the boxes was irrelevant. Participants were asked to make a button press if the shape that was presented matched one of the two shapes that they were currently remembering. A number of differing probe types were used in the task to capture a variety of errors that an individual could make during task performance.

For example, during Upgreen trials the participant was probed with probed with the item they should have updated. A correct response indicates that an appropriate update was made and that the new information was encoded into memory. There were a total of 20 Update trials. This type of trial is called a Resist Maintenance trial because participants must resist maintaining this shape when they were being asked to replace it during the update cue.

There were a total of 20 Resist Maintenance trials. For trials where the participant was asked to ignore information Upred , we probed participants with one shape from the original memory set. A correct response on this trial type suggests that the participant was able to maintain information even when presented with task relevant distracters during the update cue period.

Another probe type that was used during Upred trials involved participants being probed with a shape that they were asked to ignore during the update cue. A correct response during this trial type indicates that a participant correctly rejected a shape that did not match one of the to-be-remembered shapes. An incorrect response on this trial type suggests that the participant inappropriately encoded this shape into memory. Dysregulated salience assignment may lead to increased errors on this trial type, as task information designated as irrelevant may be inappropriately assigned some relevance.

Finally, for Upempty trials participants were probed with an item from the original memory set. A correct response indicates that the participant correctly maintained this information over the course of the trial. In addition to the probes used in the above mentioned trials participants were probed with shapes that were not presented previously.

Stimuli were projected behind the scanner, visible through a mirror above the eyes. Subjects completed task trials over the course of 10 bold runs. The various trial types were, to the extent possible, evenly interspersed within the 10 runs.

Twelve trials occurred in each run. Subjects completed a 7. We compared the two groups on movement indices and SNR to determine whether there were group differences in these factors that may be influencing group differences in fMRI results. If there were, we confirmed the results of analyses below using subsets of patients and controls matched for movement and SNR. We also used techniques discussed by Siegel et al.

We conducted a Mahalanobis distance analysis on the task variables to identify multivariate outlier values, or cases where an individual is responding differently compared to other participants across multiple dimensions. Mahalanobis distance was calculated separately for patients and control for accuracy including trial types Maintenance, Resist Distracter, Resist Distracter Lure, Update, and Resist Maintenance trials.

The probability of distance values were computed separately for patient and control groups. Chi-squared tests were used for categorical variables gender, ethnicity to determine if these distributions differed between groups.

We conducted t -tests on age, education level, parental education, symptom scores, and measures of IQ standard scores of verbal and non-verbal IQ to determine if these variables differed between diagnostic groups. Independent Mann-Whitney U tests were done for variables that failed to demonstrate variance equality. With regard to task data, because we were primarily interested the Update and Resist Distracter Lure trials, we conduced at repeated measures ANOVA, with trial type two levels; Update and Resist Distracter Lure trials as the within subject factor and diagnosis two levels; patients and controls as the between subject factor.

We were particularly interested in these trials because behavioral accuracy is critically dependent on intact gating functioning. Planned contrasts were done when appropriate to determine whether patient performance significantly differed from controls. A secondary repeated measures ANOVA was done that included the remaining task trials, with trial type six levels; Maintenance, Resist Distracter, Resist Maintenance, and the three novel probe trial types as the within subject factor and diagnosis two levels; patients and controls as the between subject factor.

We predicted with when patients are tasked with ignoring distractors they would demonstrate increased activity during incorrect trials relative to correct trials. To test these predictions, we examined activity during the update cue phase for specific probe types used in the task i. We did attempt to replicate our previous findings Ceaser et al. The benefit of examining individual trial types is that we can test predictions about specific types of errors.

For the Update trial type, an error indicates that the participant rejected an item that was presented during a green update cue, suggested that this item was not appropriately incorporated into the participant's active memory set. Looking at this specific type of error is more informative than looking at any type of error a participant could make during the Upgreen condition, as these could involve failing to identify an item that should have been updated, or incorrectly identifying the to-be-replaced item or incorrectly identifying the novel probe as correct.

In the case of Resist Distracter Lure trials, a correct response indicates that participants correctly rejected a response probe that was previously presented as a distracter. If a participant makes an error on this trial type, it indicates that the participant incorrectly accepted the response probe that was previously presented as a distracter, suggesting that they made an inappropriate update. Errors made for the Upred condition, on the other hand, could be the result of an incorrect acceptance of a distracter, but it could also result from participants forgetting the original memory set item, or incorrectly identifying a novel probe as correct.

We were also specifically interested in whether regions in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, specifically the dorsal striatum, demonstrated condition effects. Thus, we used anatomical masks of the basal ganglia Wang et al. We conducted two repeated measures ANOVA one examining Resist Distracter Lure performance and one examining Update performance , with accuracy diagnosis as the between subject factor two levels, patients and controls and both accuracy two levels, correct and incorrect and timepoint 15 frames as within subject factors.

For any significant regions, we conducted a second repeated measures ANOVA for each trial type of interest with diagnosis two levels , accuracy two levels , and time five levels; frames 8—12 as factors, to determine whether the effects reflected group differences during the update component of the trial.

We focused our analyses on regions that demonstrated either an interaction of diagnosis by accuracy, or the 3-way interaction of diagnosis by time by accuracy. We first sought to replicate the relationships between ASI and other measures of psychosis proneness and anhedonia observed previously by Cicero et al. We included measures of anhedonia Social and Physical with the expectation that there would be little or no correlation between measures of anhedonia and measures of psychosis proneness.

By including measures of anhedonia we could assess whether the relationships between cognition, brain functioning, and symptoms were specific to individual symptom domain e. To examine the relationship between brain activity and symptom expression we first restricted our analysis to regions from the Trial Type Accuracy Analysis that demonstrated sensitivity to differences in accuracy during Resist Distracter Lure and Update trials during the time period following the presentation of the update cue frames 8— We then extracted the average magnitude of activity from the five time points of interest for these regions and ran Pearson's correlation analyses between the average of these time points and symptom scores.

We predicted that patients would display a significant positive correlation between brain activity, specifically dorsal striatal activity, associated with the update cue during Distracter Resistance Lure trials and ASI, but only when incorrect responses were made to the probe.

We did not predict a correlation between brain activity associated with Distracter Resistance Lure trials and ASI when patients made correct responses to the probe, given that ASI and interference control errors are proposed to result from striatal dysregulation and correct trials are not thought to result from such dysregulation.

That is, striatal activity during incorrect Distracter Lure trials may represent instances where dysregulation was sufficient enough to produce false alarms, whereas activity during correct trials was not have sufficient to produce false alarms. Further, as noted above, we did predict to find significant correlations between ASI and psychosis proneness scales i.

Thus, if dorsal striatal activity is positively associated with aberrant salience, we would also expect to see a positive correlation between striatal activity and psychosis proneness scales for patients, but not a strong correlation between striatal activity and measures of anhedonia. Given these differences in age and ethnicity we used these variables as covariates during all planned follow up analyses that explored effects that interacted with diagnosis from the voxel-wise analyses.

Demographics, task data, and symptom scores for patients and controls. Demographics, cognitive scores, symptom scores, and task data for both patients and controls. The p-values for these variables were generated using nonparametric tests. Nonparametric tests were used to compare Perceptual Aberration, Physical Anhedonia, and Magical Ideation between groups as these variables failed to demonstrate variance homogeneity.

Overall, controls performed better than patients. Given that we found significant differences of novel probe performance between diagnostic groups suggesting a global cognitive deficit rather than one specific to distracter resistance, for example we conducted separate multiple regression analyses to test whether diagnostic group could significantly predict Resist Distracter Lure and Update performance.

For all trial types that demonstrated significant differences between diagnostic groups, patients performed worse that controls. Task Accuracy for Diagnostic Groups. Task accuracy for patients burgundy and controls green. Red colored text indicate trail types that were also considered an Upred condition, blue colored text were trial types that were also considered an Upempty condition, and green colored text were also considered an Upgreen condition.

While generally patients performed numerically worse than controls on all trial types, these differences were only significant for the Resist Distracter Lure, Update trial types, and Resist Maintenance trials. Regions that demonstrated relevant effects from our whole brain analysis can be seen in the Supplementary Sections B , C. Two regions demonstrated and interaction of accuracy and diagnosis, including the right lateral putamen 23, 0, 4 and right lateral MFG 40, 13, 30 when examining all 15 frames of the trial.

For patients, activity during incorrect trials where, at the probe, the identified the distracter presented during the update cue as a correct response was significantly greater than trials when they correctly rejected the distracter at the probe. Controls, however, did not show this pattern. Regions demonstrating an effect of diagnosis by resist distracter lure trial type accuracy within our anatomical masks. Regions from the current data set that demonstrated diagnosis by Resist Update Lure accuracy.

We only conducted follow up analyses for the update cue period on regions that demonstrated a significant interaction of accuracy and diagnosis. We plotted the 2 regions putamen, 23, 0, 4, and MFG, 40, 13, 30 that demonstrated diagnosis by Resist Distracter Lure accuracy following the presentation of the update cue.

Red lines in the figure represent incorrect trial activity and blue lines represent correct trial activity. During Resist Distracter Lure participants are probed with an item they were instructed to ignore. The gray box 16—24 s represents the time frame used in our follow up update cue analyses corresponding to frames 8—12 , which is shifted from the offset of the update cue to account for hemodynamic lag. For both the putamen top row of the figure and MFG bottom row of the figure we found that for patients A,C incorrect trial activity was significantly greater than correct trial activity for frames 8—12 16—24 s during the trial , consistent with the idea that increases of brain activity in these regions are associated with information updating.

For controls B,D we found the opposite pattern, such that incorrect trial activity was significantly less than correct trial activity for the putamen, and numerically, but not significantly, less than correct trial activity in the MFG. Next we examined the Update trial type.

For patients, activity in both regions of the globus pallidus significantly differed when comparing correct and incorrect Update activity following the presentation of the update cue, such that correct activity was greater than incorrect activity Figures 4A,C. For controls, correct and incorrect activity in these regions also significantly differed from one another, however incorrect trial activity in both regions was greater than correct trial activity.

The pattern for controls when comparing correct Update trial activity to incorrect Update trial activity was the opposite of the pattern of correct vs. This was unexpected. Regions demonstrating an effect of diagnosis by update trial type accuracy within our anatomical masks. Regions from the current data set that demonstrated diagnosis by Update accuracy. We plotted the regions in bilateral globus pallidus that demonstrated diagnosis by Update accuracy following the presentation of the update cue.

For the Update trial type participants are probed with an item they should have updated during the update cue. For both regions of the globus pallidus patients A,C demonstrated significantly less activity during incorrect trials when compared with correct trials, again consistent with the idea that increases of brain activity in these regions are associated with information updating.

However, for controls B,D we again found the opposite pattern to patients when comparing correct and incorrect trial activity. Controls, on the other hand, demonstrated the opposite pattern of patients, such that activity in the left globus pallidus during incorrect trials following the presentation of the update cue was significantly greater than activity during correct trials. Activity in the right globus pallidus for controls did not significantly differ when comparing correct and incorrect Update activity following the presentation of the update cue.

We examined the time course of activity for this region to determine where the effect was coming from. While numerically the pattern of activity in this region was the same for patients and controls as what we observed in the globus pallidus greater correct than incorrect trial activity following the presentation of the update cue for patients and the opposite pattern for controls , the differences did not reach significance.

There did appear to be differences earlier during the trial around the onset of the memory set for both patients and controls that may have driven the initial interaction of diagnosis by time by accuracy when we examined all 15 time frames. Correct trial putamen activity of patients significantly positively correlated with only one other measure of psychosis proneness—magical ideation.

Incorrect trial activity in the putamen of patients also demonstrated a significant positive correlation with magical ideation. We tested whether the correlation between ASI and putamen activity for correct vs. The direction of the correlation between correct MFG activity and other measures of psychosis proneness, including perceptual aberration and magical ideation, was also negative but these correlations also did not reach significance. Correlations between correct and incorrect resist distracter lure trial type brain activity and aberrant salience, psychosis proneness, and anhedonia measures.

Correlations between Resist Distracter Lure, correct and incorrect, trial brain activity and clinical symptom measures. Patient correlations are printed in burgundy and controls correlations are printed in green. The red boxes indicate correlations of interest. We observed a significant positive correlation between ASI and brain activity in the right lateral putamen during incorrect Resist Distracter Lure trials for patients but not controls, such that, as predicted, the brain activity for patients who were susceptible to distraction increased as ASI symptoms increased.

If anything, putamen activity of controls demonstrated a non-significant correlation in the opposite direction. While we also observed a positive correlation between MFG activity during incorrect Resist Distracter Lure trials and ASI scores for patients, this correlation did not reach significance.

Incorrect Resist Distracter Lure activity in the putamen was negatively correlated with perceptual aberration and social anhedonia, but did not significantly correlate with any other measure of psychosis proneness or anhedonia. For the MFG, while correct activity did not significantly correlate with any measure of psychosis proneness or anhedonia, incorrect trial activity demonstrated significant negative correlations with perceptual aberration, physical anhedonia, and social anhedonia.

Finally, we examined whether the significant correlation between ASI and incorrect trial putamen activity significantly differed between patients and controls. Next we examined the relationship between aberrant salience and brain activity in regions from the trial type analysis see above that demonstrated a significant interaction of diagnosis and Update accuracy. Left lateral globus pallidus activity also significantly correlated with magical ideation in the same direction, but not with perceptual aberration or the anhedonia measures.

Right lateral globus pallidus activity, however, demonstrated significant positive correlations with all other measures of psychosis proneness and anhedonia. Correlations between correct and incorrect update trial type brain activity and aberant salience, psychosis proneness, and anhedonia measures. Correlations between Update, correct and incorrect, trial brain activity and clinical symptom measures.

For controls, we observed a significant negative correlation between ASI and right lateral globus pallidus activity during incorrect Update trials. Activity in this region did not significantly correlate with other measures of psychosis proneness or anhedonia. Neither correlation between left and right globus pallidus correct trial activity and magical ideation significantly differed from respective incorrect trial correlations between brain activity and magical ideation.

This study sought to test whether individuals with schizophrenia have dysregulated striatal activity when processing cognitive control demands, whether this dysregulation is associated with performance deficits, and whether striatal activity is associated with aberrant salience symptoms. We found evidence to support this hypothesis, as patients performed worse than controls on distracter resistance trials but performance did not differ on maintenance trials.

We also found that patients demonstrated increased striatal and prefrontal activity during incorrect distracter resistance trails, when they may have inappropriately updated information. While this finding is consistent with our hypothesis, we did not observe the same pattern for controls. Finally, we predicted that increased striatal activity, and not prefrontal activity during interference control trials, would be associated with increased symptom severity of delusions, hallucinations, and the index of aberrant salience from the ASI.

We found evidence to support this hypothesis, as striatal activity of patients during error trials positively correlated with symptom expression. We did not find the same relationship pattern for our control subjects. These findings are discussed further below. As predicted we found increased activity for incorrect Resist Distracter Lure trials compared with correct trials within a right DLPFC region and within the right putamen, but for patients not controls.

For controls, activity within the DLPFC demonstrated no difference between correct and incorrect trials, and greater correct trial activity than incorrect trial activity within the putamen—the opposite pattern of patients with schizophrenia. Further, we found greater activity during incorrect trials for patients. These findings are consistent with the idea that for patients, activity occurring in response to the update cue, even when instructed to ignore these items, meaningfully relates to later behavioral accuracy at the probe.

Further, this later finding fits the prediction one would make based on the computational models of gating e. Unfortunately, with our current design it is difficult to disentangle the causal contributions prefrontal and striatal regions have on behavioral outcomes, given the relationship between basal ganglia output and prefrontal function described above.

For example, it is possible that basal ganglia output precedes prefrontal activation and increases of activity represent information updating whereas prefrontal activity represents storage and maintenance related activity of the updated item. We also examined whether cortical and subcortical brain activity differed between diagnostic groups during correct and incorrect Update trials. With regard to brain activity, we found that bilateral globus pallidus activity for patients was significantly greater for correct than incorrect trials.

In Hazy et al. This inhibition activates the globus pallidus, causing disinhibition of substantia nigra pars reticulata which is tonically inhibited by the globus pallidus , and this disinhibition of the substantia nigra competes with inhibitory input from striatal MSNs associated with the direct pathway. Thus, increases of activation of the globus pallidus should disinhibit the substantia nigra, making it less likely that the cortex will be released from thalamic inhibition and less likely that an update will occur.

Our finding of greater activity on correct vs. However, this result might be consistent with the findings of McNab and Klingberg They found that increases of globus pallidus activity, which preceded the presentation of distracters, was associated with increasing working memory storage.

They suggested that the globus pallidus might function as an information filter that increases activity in response to relevant task information and decreases activity in response to irrelevant information. In this context it makes some sense that increases of activity within the globus pallidus are associated with correct trials of information updating as task relevant information is being filtered in and lower activity is associated with errors, but again we only found this pattern of effects for patients and not controls.

Robust mahalanobis distance matlab torrent ciara goodies album torrent robust mahalanobis distance matlab torrent

Opposite. autobiografia lui ceausescu andrei ujica torrent excited too

Следующая статья heroes del silencio 2007 tour torrent

Другие материалы по теме

  • The wolverine subtitles english yify torrents
  • Senjata counter-strike go torrent
  • Means girl ita streaming torrent
  • 47 ronin subtitles maxspeed torrents
  • Comment cracker assassins creed unity sans utorrent games
  • 2 комментарии для “Robust mahalanobis distance matlab torrent

    Добавить комментарий

    Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *