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The Zeidi, Kadari, Jabari, etc. But the most prevailing Opinion, if you search into the Secret of the Effendis, is plain Deism. I know you equally condemn the Quackery of all Churches as much you revere the sacred Truths in which we both agree» Her belief in Deism is enunciated in several letters, she saw it as a means to forge links between East and West, and as a way to demon- strate that the differences between Islam and Christianity were only relative.
Bulgarian women dressed themselves in a great variety of coloured glass beads and were not ugly, but of tawny complexions. The whole excur- sion was enchanting, beginning with the couch, which had louvers or lattices instead of glass, painted and gilded with flowers and mottoes, with a fringed canopy in scarlet cloth.
The baths occupied a five-domed stone building lit only through its roof. Behind the entrance hall came four rooms, in three of which there was an uncomfortable heat. Gervase could have been there invisible. But Lady Mary never implied that Jervas could paint better than she could write. The account of this scene became particularly notorious when the Embassy Letters were posthumously printed We know that she unequivocally described the Turkish women by comparing their liv- ing bodies to the works of famous Italian and English artists.
This perpetual Masquerade gives the entire Liberty of following their Inclinations without danger of Discovery. Charles Sonnini de Manoncourt, a naturalist who stayed in Egypt between and , thus described the women of the Mamluks: «perpetually recluse, or going out but seldom, and always with a veil, or, to speak more correctly, with a mask which entirely cover their face […].
And for whom are so many charms thus carefully preserved: for one man alone, for a tyrant who holds them in captivity» Another inter- esting description is provided by the Comte de Volney who was in Syria between and and who affirmed that women there were [ Finally, he claimed that the govern- ment deprived them of the right to own and manage their property, to will it to their heirs after death and to endow it as waqf.
Lady Mary did not find anything of that lechery, perversion and sexual promiscuity that she knew to be so common in the Western imaginary of the harem. It was with the utmost regret that I made use of these costly Napkins, as finely wrought as the finest handkercheifs that ever came out of this Country. You may be sure that they were entirely spoilt before Dinner was over a dinner 50 dishes of meat which, after their fashion was placed on the table but one at a time.
She said that the first he made choise of was always after the first in rank, and not the Mother of the eldest Son, as other writers would make us believe. Lady Mary was clever enough to forestall criticism of her meticu- lous comments. After all, many of her correspondents had, by this time, read the tales of the Arabian Nights, translated into English between and from a French version edited by the Orientalist Antoine Galland We traveller are in very hard circumstances.
But people judge of Travellers exactly with the same Candour, good Nature, and impartiallity they judge of their Neighbours upon all Occasions. Tis his business to get Money and hers to spend it, and this noble prerogative extends it selfe to the very meanest of the Sex. They go abroad when and where they please. Tis true they have no public places but the Bagnios, and there can only be seen by their own Sex; however, that is a Diversion they take great pleasure in.
But his ineptitude, combined with reshufflings in the English Cabinet, led to his substitution and recall after only fifteen months. For his brilliant wife, who for more than a year had been in the condition of giving free play to her imagination, the idea of returning to the affected and snobbish life of the London court did not appear very stimulating, but forced by the events she resigned herself to her destiny.
Her last words from Constantinople, condensed in a touching letter dated 19th May , show once again all the strength and charm of this captivating figure: «I have not been yet a full Year here and am on the point of removing; such is my ram- bling Destiny. By the beginning of the eighteenth century the process of forging the nation had reached its major phase, producing a mythology whose principles were to stress British political and economic supremacy and to justify ethnocentric attitudes.
The Turkish Embassy Letters show only a few traces of this atti- tude and underscore how difficult it was for their author to free herself completely from the filters of her original culture. Edward Said illustrated how this method also occurred in the male Orientalist discourse he took into account in his well-known study Orientalism : Something patently foreign and distant acquires, for one reason or another, the status more rather than less familiar.
One tends to stop judging things either as completely novel or as completely well-known; a new median cat- egory emerges, a category that allows one to see new things, things seen for the first time as versions of a previously known thing. As a consequence, writing about them for Lady Mary corresponded in a certain way to writing about herself and, by extension, about those Englishwomen of her class who still knew too little about female coopera- tion and solidarity. Similarly, trying to unmask and deconstruct the lies of those who had anticipated her in the Levant meant reformulating the can- ons of non-fiction and making it possible for travelling to be regarded — in Eric J.
Notes 1 Lady M. Halsband, Oxford UP, Oxford , p. There is very little evidence in British history of women visiting the Ottoman Empire before Lady Mary. As far as we know, the first wife of an English diplomat to accompany her husband on his posting was a certain Anne Lamb, who died of the plague in the residential neighbourhoods of Pera in for an account of her story, see W. Other information can be found in Sir W. Foster, ed. Twenty years later it was the turn of one Frances Wych, who sojourned in the Ottoman Empire with her whole family from to see J.
Hard- esty, London Records also tell us of the adventure of the Quakers Katherine Evans and Sarah Cheevers, who set out in to convert Alexandria in Egypt and were held captive by the Inquisition on Malta K. Evans, S. Wilson, London See also S. Arcara, Messaggere di luce.
The names of other women also appear in lists of ransomed captives. In , for instance, an expedition from Algiers and northern Morocco returned with former captives, including nineteen women coming from England, Ireland, and Scotland see E.
Blaikelock, living at Temple Barre, London Finally, traces of expatriate females occasion- ally appear in rumours of disreputable goings-on. William Biddulph was reported to have met an «Inglishe strumpitt» on Zante, while even the extremely broadminded Samuel Pepys was staggered by the behaviour of some women living in the English colony at Tangier see S.
Pepys, The Tangier Papers , transcribed, edited and collated with the transcription of Mr. Mat- thews by E. Chappel, Navy Records Society, London Lady Mary then was by no means the first wife of an English ambassador to accompany her husband, but was the first to write about it. Collected from the Conversa- tion of Mr. Singer, Library of Old Authors, London , p. Fortunati, R. Monticelli, M. English Women and the Middle East, Sexuality, Religion and Work, Macmillan, London , p. Gibbon, Private Letters, , with an introduction by the Earl of Sheffield, ed.
Prothero, Murray, London , p. Fiedler, The Stranger in Shakespeare. Bent, London William Biddulph was a clergyman whose prejudices were religion. While chaplain in Aleppo, he travelled to Jerusalem using the Bible as his guidebook and disbelieving anything he saw that was not confirmed by it W.
Habeland, London Henry Blount went to the Levant in and admitted that his desire to travel to the Ottoman lands was both sceptical and rational; he sought to examine tradition and authority and find out if the «Turkish way appeare absolutely barbarous, as we are given to understand, or rather another kind of civil- ity, different from ours, but not lesse pretending» H.
Blount, A Voyage into the Levant. Legat, London , p. Pitt, London For a comparison of these four travellers, see G. Wortley Montagu, The Complete Letters, cit. See also R. Embassy to Constantinople 33 14 See R.
See also I. Grundy, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. See also G. Abbott, Under the Turk in Constantinople. Mabro ed. Nussbaum, Torrid Zones. Stevens, ed. Hunter, printed for J. Stockdale, London , p. II, p. Yusuf Ali, Amana Corporation, Brent- wood , p. Starkey, J. Starkey eds , Unfolding the Orient. The second one, on the contrary, describes the travel itinerary from one stage to another. It is therefore to the first category that many of the accounts of the female writers who described the harem and hamam belong see B.
English Women and the Middle East, cit. See also L. Borghi, N. Livi Bacci, U. Treder a cura di , Viaggio e scrittura. Foster, Across New World. Mills, Discourses of Differences. Frediani, Usci- re. La scrittura di viaggio al femminile: dai paradigmi mitici alle immagini orientaliste, Diabasis, Reggio Emilia Esploratrici, viaggiatrici, geografe, presentazione di M.
Hack, Dia- basis, Reggio Emilia , p. The Small Pox so fatal and so general amongst us is here entirely harmless by the invention of engrafting which is the term they give it. There is a set of old Woman who make it their business to per- form the Operation. Every Autumn in the month of September, when the great Heat is abated, people send to one another to know if any of their family has a mind to have the small pox.
She immediately rips open that you offer to her with a large needle which gives you no more pain than a common scratch and puts into the vein as much veno mas can lye upon the head of her needle […]. The children or young patients play to- gether all the rest of the day and are in perfect health till the 8th. They have very rarely above 20 or 30 in their faces, which never mark, and in 8 days time they are as well as bifore their illness. Every year thousands undergo this Operation, and the French Ambassador says pleasantly that they take the Small pox here by way of diversion as they take the Waters in other Countrys.
Leed, The Mind of the Traveller. References Abbott G. Embassy to Constantinople 35 Arcara Stefania, Messaggere di luce. Blount Henry, A Voyage into the Levant. Legat, London Bohls E. Hardesty, London Fiedler L.
Griffin, London Foster Shirley, Across New World. Foster William ed. Frediani Federica, Uscire. Prothero, Murray, London Leed E. Lowenthal C. Mabro Judy ed. Mills Sara, Discourses of Differences. Nussbaum F. Pepys Samuel, The Tangier Papers , transcribed, edited and collated with the transcription of Mr. Matthews by E. Hack, Diabasis, Reggio Emilia Hunter, London Collected from the Conversation of Mr. Singer, Library of Old Authors, London Stevens M.
Wortley Montagu Lady M. Halsband, vols. Halsband, I. Grundy, Clarendon Press, Oxford Silvani, trad. Silvani, M. Similarly to the creations that Michel Butor analyses in his paper on Les Mots dans la peinture — in which the sig- nature frequently becomes the painting4, by orientating the attention onto I. What are the factors that influence and direct its functioning, and finally what are the consequences for the work itself? In other words, for Isou the Name is the only ontological dimension with an authentic existence.
It passes beyond it because la Parole. A Name is dire. It is the only word that le seul mot qui en contient plusieurs. What is such a can- on, at its most basic level, if not a list of works connected to a list of names, of hi stories, of identities, created and promoted through rhetorical means?
After avant-garde movements such as Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism, it is quite difficult for a brand new artistic avant-garde to be ac- knowledged at an international level. The sheer desire of an unknown teenag- er is not sufficient to ensure the artistic strength required to shatter, once more, the entire western European heritage.
Nevertheless, Isidore Isou is determined to succeed. Can you facilitate the formalities? This concise self-descrip- tion reveals not only the three major pillars of his identity construction his age — the prodigious child, his religion — the long waited Messiah, and his literary inclination but also the intensity of his ambitions.
His appeal was not taken seriously by the famous French writer, who never followed-up on his bold demands, but at least this encounter allowed the young poet to realise, once more, the nature of the actions he had to take in order to achieve his dream. Unlike his prior Dadaist compatriots, Isou has no intention of trading Paris and France for any other European cultural centre. It is Paris and only Paris that could provide this artist the grandeur he is seeking.
It is not adoration but envy that animates him, pure hatred, experienced with maximum inten- sity by the one whose entrance is still denied: «How I detest Paris», writes Isou further on in his biographical novel, «this inviolable old girl who has the looks of withered actresses! Oh, how I detest Paris and the France that lays at its feet, like a big piece of shit! Some would say, it is a matter of ego, and there were quite a number of times when Isou was accused by critics and fellow artists of megalomania.
I have always autre chose. Stendhal dienne. The reader cannot but ask whether there is a true distinction between the two instances or whether we are facing a masked equivalence. If so, why would a writer prefer to represent himself within his text by the use of the 3rd person pronoun instead of the usual 1st person one? Is it the con- fessional effect, the personal implication that this substitution is supposed to elude?
But even so, why then return to the 1st person pronoun within a matter of lines? Why maintain, throughout the entire essay, this constant alternation between the 1st and the 3rd personal pronoun? How could it ac- tually benefit one singular identity construction? According to Foucault, the presence of personal pronouns, of time and space adverbs, as well as verb conjugations, are never innocent within a discourse. By nature a text contains signs referring to the author, and the way in which the reader chooses to represent this auctorial image is per- manently affected by the functioning of these discursive marks.
Foucault insists that «all discourses endowed with the author function» possess a certain «plu- rality of [the] self» What is unusual is the manner in which Isou decides to explore this polyvalence. He would have not been the only one to write or to talk about himself in the 3rd person, but he certainly would be one of the few, if not the only one, who would deliberately oscillate between the two.
He thought nais pour le Messie. In other words, if Isou decides to introduce a heterodiegetic discourse in his theoretical writings, it is for much more than a simple rhetorical distance. Je ne suis istent zone. I no longer am! I no longer plus! I sign my name on a sheet of pa- sur un papier.
As pronouncing a magic formula, une formule magique, je reviens. It is precisely this promise, which seems to be guiding Isidore Isou throughout his artistic practice. Unless otherwise indicated, all translations are by the author. Italics in the original. Foucault, What is an author? Rabinow ed. Rabinow Paul ed. On ne trouve pas ce topos dans les chansons des Lost.
Selon Victoria A. Villancicos, glosas, canciones etc. Dans les textes du Cancionero General on mentionne le noir, le blanc, le jaune et le vert. Dans Mena Dans la chanson Semplice de Walter Fontana on cite deux couleurs: le rose et le noir. Dans la glosa de mote GM 4. Dans Mena 7. Walter Fontana emploie seulement le substantif baby.
Dutton, El Cancionero del siglo XV c. Compagno, Glossario cit. I-II; H. Sudamericana, Buenos Aires ; R. De Riquer, Los trovadores, Ariel, Barcelona , vol. III; P. Rodado Ruiz, «Tristura conmigo va» Salinas, Jorge Manrique, cit. De Riquer, Los trovadores, cit. Compagno, Glossario, cit. Alvar, V. Alvar, El dolce stil novo: 47 sonetos y 3 canciones. I, pp. Ferroni, Storia della Letteratura Italiana, cit. III, pp. Antonelli, Le origini, cit. Lausberg, Elementi di retorica, Il Mulino, Bologna Alvar Carlos, El dolce stil novo: 47 sonetos y 3 canciones.
De las jarchas a Jorge Manrique , Hermes, Barcelona Botta Patrizia, Una tomba emblematica per una morta incoronata. Burrus V. Cancionero General, recopilado por Hernando del Castillo, Valencia, Denomy A. Estudio, notas y comentario de texto, Narcea, Madrid Duncan R. Beardsley et al. Ferroni Giulio, Storia della letteratura italiana, Mondadori, Milano , voll. I e III. Gerli E. Green O. Hernando del Castillo, Cancionero general, ed. Caravaggi, Taurus, Madrid Lausberg Heinrich, Elementi di retorica, trad.
Ritter Santini, Il Mulino, Bologna Lewis C. De Nigris, Liguori, Napoli Rodado Ruiz A. Sudamericana, Buenos Aires Mutations and Alternative Speeches: Rap Music First it spread predominantly through the Anglophone countries, but soon opened up to ideas coming from a wider arena.
It had the merit of stimulating reflections on the status of the canon, interrogating scholars on what the canon was, on how it should have been constructed, on the func- tions it should have had, and, more specifically, on the necessity of creating a canon, with all the responsibilities, duties and risks that its action was to have in literary and cultural systems.
As a premise, it is important to underline the fact that the concept of canon relates to every art form, i. It is thus possible to talk of a canon in the fields of painting, music, and so forth. Secondly, it is important to keep in mind that canons refer, by convention, to a selection of works that are seen as fundamental and exemplary in the realm of a given culture: for example the Western canon.
But they can also refer to a specific period, such as the Mediaeval canon, or the Renaissance canon, etc. A Canon has normative functions and exemplifies modes and ways of providing mod- els. It sets standards and offers examples perceived as good to follow and emulate, thus influencing society.
It aims at pre- scribing prototypes and models whose influence one may see in the field of education as well as cultural and social life. One of the main achievements of the debate carried on over the last years has been to question the very concept of canon and its validity. Starting from its definition the canon has been deconstructed and contest- ed. Most scholars have lately agreed on the fact that the hypothesis of a universal canon posited years ago can never work, since the canon is the result of a precise ideology that cannot be universally valid and widely accepted, and that reflects the principles and interests of those who make it up.
Moreover, the canon mirrors specific values that may be valid only in a given space and time. A canon reflects the identity of a specific social, ethnic and linguistic group, so that, in modern times, in an era of relativ- ism and multiculturalism, a rapid and prolific multiplication of different canons is governing the current scenario. This new trend is due to the fact that today the world is inhabited by thousands of different social, ethnic and linguistic groups that are extremely heterogeneous.
In addition to this, it is also important to stress the fact that canons have to do with value judg- ments, expressed according to different parameters, by complex, stratified and multi-faceted societies, and are thus very far from being unique and monolithic models. Whilst the debate on the issue of the canon was being carried on, schol- ars progressively came to acknowledge that a canon, understood as univer- sal and hegemonic, would never exist.
Canon is in fact epochal, ideological and tied to classifications operated in different cultural atmospheres, and therefore, it varies. Once having questioned the essence and form of the canon, its necessary revision has eventually taken place. Today, due to the wealth and diversity of social groups, many different canons have emerged. The idea of a common identity gave place to the proposal of new models such as the American melting pot, made up of multiple identities, or the Canadian mosaic in which every social group creates its own canon, trying, sometimes succeeding sometimes not, to establish a system of co- existence, if not acceptation.
Moreover, the era of globalization and multi- culturalism has led to a fragmentation of identities, and, since the canon is strictly linked to the idea of identity, if the societies today are multicultural, the canon also necessarily has to be the same.
So, a unique and hegem- onic canon can no longer exist, what now exists is the idea of fragmen- tation. Therefore the canon, as it has been traditionally understood, has disappeared. In such a frame, the concept of hierarchy that the canon, as it was con- ceived in the past, entailed, has also vanished. Today the axis of the system has rotated, from being a vertical and hierarchical one it has become a hori- zontal one, where different canons simultaneously develop side by side.
Mutations and Alternative Speeches: Rap Music 69 on, in which it reflects ideas, values and principles that respond to its own specific requirements. Hybridization is wished for, and may occur among different canons and arts, however intersection and contact are not funda- mental for their life.
So, every canon develops independently. As for schooling and the issue of education, a field where selection is required for obvious reasons of time, and where therefore it is important to give priority to certain forms and works of art, every country and society makes subjective choices, even though with variants, so that one can argue that an Italian canon may exist, and be different from an English one, and so forth.
Canons may change over time and according to the social back- grounds they are exposed to. The spontaneous emergence of these new canons questions the world of high arts and tradition. The contours of what has been understood as high, low, and mass culture are being redesigned and their boundaries weakened. Graffiti, in figurative arts, for example, are beginning to be part of the collective heritage through the improvisation of the Writers, as are the performances of the Breakers, by means of rap music.
It is possible to claim, then, that the setting up of new canons today no longer seems to be due to academic decisions made by restricted elitist groups but, on the contrary, it is becoming clearer and clearer that these canons are emerging according to the contingencies of reality.
The power- ful machine of marketing is also an important instrument to decide which cultural products must be placed in the world economy and which must not. This mechanism functions in the literary system, in which, for ex- ample, new fields of study Postcolonial Studies, Black Studies, Women Studies, Gay and Lesbian Studies, etc. In such a way it is evident that only certain products are encour- aged to enter, or are deliberately placed on the market, sometimes because they respond to the taste of the public, sometimes because they are more in tune with the time, and are able to embody new sensibilities, and represent new identities, and progressively substitute old models.
It is History that makes the canon. Hegemonic discourse, hegemonic culture, subaltern culture be- came the centre of the debate and the relationship among these forces has been changing and also reversing over time; notwithstanding this, the truth is that «history is a tool able to dominate Time, past, present and thus also future»5. What creates new cultural products and makes them enter the can- on of History are ideas, or better, ideologies.
Indeed, globalization and the formation of multiethnic and multicultural communities through migration have contributed to re-assetting the reality of the various communities. The world of arts is therefore constantly questioned by everyday reality and the market demand, accord- ing to which it expels, includes, and hybridizes itself with new forms.
One piece of evidence of all this is the modern phenomenon of rap- ping. A form of poetry, music, body performance, that is sung and danced. It is born in the metropolis and street life feeds it. It uses all the power- ful elements of the urban atmosphere: rhythm, vibration, polyphony. It consciously uses its linguistic colloquial modes and slang. It conveys mes- sages, often polemical ones.
Rappers claim their ethnic identity but especially room within the world cultural panorama. Mutations and Alternative Speeches: Rap Music 71 hop: a culture, a way of life; whoever follows it has to respect specific charac- teristics and adhere to the hip hop lifestyle, be it the way of wearing clothes, using a specific body language, showing symbols to wear with pride, or us- ing a typical slang.
It is a sort of confraternity, a school, a community whose members come from the most diverse parts of the world, and who share ideas and principles and interpret them with homogeneity. Even if hip hop culture and its subgenres, such as rap music, have not emerged from the inner city, they have recently attracted the attention of the academic world by which they have been studied and monitored. One of the many achievements has been the creation of an anthology, entitled The Anthology of Rap5 , by Adam Bradly and Andrew Dubois, two young scholars and researchers, both of them PhDs at Harvard.
The book came out in and had the purpose of enquiring into the genesis and history of rap music and culture. Fundamental help, source of information and premise to the book was the Hip Hop Archive, previous- ly created by the same university, which came out in in collaboration with the W. These are just a few of the many examples of books published and research activities on this topic, but they are indeed meaningful to understand the emergence of such a culture and the importance of this field of study.
Rap music generates a text whose content is strictly linked to the context in which it develops. The knowledge and awareness of it is fundamental for a correct interpretation of the phe- nomenon. The book discusses an important network of links between high culture and mass culture, claiming that one is fundamental for the other; and moreover that in between them, there is frequent hybridization; this process leads to the creation of new fertile combinations and possibilities.
Much emphasis is also given to the important role of mass media, especially the Internet, for a freer and more equalitarian access to information. The study eventually focuses on the rappers themselves and defines them as «active, creative agents», who use everyday reality and life and make them the core of their discourse; they deal with topics such as poverty, non-success, failure, weakness, and many other issues.
Rap music includes a discourse of revolt, «future is encrypted in my troubled lyrics», says Lowkey, as well as subversion against a hege- monic system of privileges, no longer bearable. It is not by chance, in fact, that the majority of rap lyrics were generated in the ghettoes of the early black communities in contact with mainstream culture, which has tended to minimize and criticize the culture of rap in its forms and essence.
Moreover, Haupt wishes to explore «the conscious hip hop», and by this, he intends: [ In this respect, the phrase knowledge of self has often been used by hip hop artists to refer to this form of self-reflexive consciousness, which has often been associated with the ideals of black consciousness. This frame of revolt is well ex- emplified by the symptomatic titles given to the lyrics.
For example Lowkey, one of the major rappers of the international scenario, entitles some of his lyr- ics: Everything Must Change , Voice of the Voiceless , Rise and Fall ; Beastie Boys sing Sabotage , For Tomorrow , and moreover Mr. The message conveyed is a personal, subjec- tive one; the rapper tells his or her own story, experience and life. Rap is thus a highly emotional genre. The language and the slang used are based on onomatopoeias. The sounds dress the words, wrapping them up, em- bracing them.
The references are multiple: God, money, power, illness, pol- itics, drugs, war, slavery, racism, and are deeply linked with reality. The voices of the rappers are polemical and aim at generating long lyrics, as if they were never enough to make the change happen. It is extremely fertile, ready to blend with local proposals, to be played with local instruments, autochthonous rhythms, local phe- nomena appropriate to rap culture and music mixing them with tradition.
Moreover rap is a common language, shared by artists coming from the most different parts of the world, with different traditions, though rap music is predominantly performed by young artists whose target are the younger generations. In it, different social, political and historical contexts are interwoven among themselves; besides reflecting reality, rap music, as shown by the lecture delivered at Harvard, can also be used as a teaching tool to provide students with new keys for the comprehension of everyday reality.
So, if to make a canon means, for a given form of art, to be analyzed, se- lected, organized, put into anthologies, published in books and journals, trans- mitted by multi-media channels TV, radio, cinema, movies, PC games, the Internet , taught in school, and given attention by the academic world, for all these reasons it is possible to claim that rap culture creates its own canon, the canon of rap music, be it the British canon of rap or the American one, and so on.
Its global diffusion has been achieved thanks to modern technology, the market then has validated rap as a real genre and as an item that is easy to sell. Communication does not merely express the direction that globalization is taking, but also has the power to organize it, to establish communicative networks. These communicative networks, offer marginal subjects the opportunity to issue challenges to the iniquities and imbalances produced by corporate globalization.
It is advisable to create and aliment the debate around this issue so that it may constantly be renegoti- ated and up-to-date. Mutations and Alternative Speeches: Rap Music 75 ing under the pressure of many forces: past and present, centre and pe- riphery, mainstream and subaltern. However these canons should always be renegotiated forms of co-existence, because, in the end, mainstream and subaltern are traversed by constant relations of inclusion and exclusion, derivation and production.
Canons should be seen as possibilities, dynam- ic organisms open to modifications, new entries and old ones. The history of canon is in conclusion a history of continuity and fracture, of a constant re-making and re-fashioning. While the two opponents in the debate, the pro-canon and the anti-canon, were fighting each other and re- spectively contesting their positions, new canons were independently and spontaneously coming about.
The answer eventually was a self-made one, under the pressure of all the changes of current days, willingly or not willingly, new canons have emerged and others will keep emerging in the future. Far from belonging to the «school of resentment»16, as Harold Bloom has de- fined it, the trend in research is today oriented towards openness and multiple options.
What is sure, is that despite the different opinions the debate has to go on, constantly acting as an engine to strengthen dialogue and confrontation and, in them, look for a relationship with diversity. Notes 1 F.
Olivieri a cura di , Un canone per il terzo millennio. Testi e problemi per lo studio del Novecento tra teoria della letteratura, antropologia e storia, Mondadori, Milano , p. Domeni- chelli, Il Canone letterario occidentale al tempo della globalizzazione: mutazioni, ibridazioni, prolifera- zioni, «Moderna», 1, , pp.
Domenichelli, cit. Bradley, A. References Albertazzi Silvia, Canone, in S. Albertazzi, R. Vecchi a cura di , Abbecedario postcoloniale. Ascari Maurizio, Canone e anticanone: la parola e il potere, in Id. Cieli comuni, orizzonti di- versi, Napoli, Liguori Domenichelli Mario, Il Canone letterario occidentale al tempo della globalizzazione: mutazioni, ibridazioni, proliferazioni, «Moderna», 1, , pp. Guillory John, Cultural Capital.
Lyotard J. Olivieri U. Testi e problemi per lo studio del Novecento tra teoria della letteratura, antropologia e storia, Mondadori, Milano Una volta terminata la Prima Guerra Mondiale, molti artisti ed intellettuali che avevano soggiornato come profughi a Zurigo in quegli anni abbandonaro- no la Svizzera; tra questi, anche Tzara, Arp e gli altri dadaisti.
Tirol 14 Aug. Wir hoffen sie mit dieser sache nicht zu belestigen und werden ihnen gerne auch einmal behilflich sein. I buchi nelle nostre suole si richiudono e le parti marcite dei nostri denti guarisco- no. Con grande impazienza attendiamo la sua antologia. Con la presente le alle- ghiamo mila corone. La preghiamo di detrarne 5 franchi per la matrice e di utilizzare il resto per le antologie da spedirci.
Inoltre ci impegneremo molto a venderne anche in Svizzera. Ovviamente poi le invieremo danaro svizzero. Ma ora vengo al nocciolo della nostra lettera. Tzara infatti siede sulla macchina da scrivere ed io canto.
Le chiediamo cortesemente di aiutarci. Per un accurato conteggio, la lettera acclusa va consegnata, insieme ai dattiloscritti da conservare con cura, ad un tipografo di sua fiducia. La risposta va inviata quanto prima pos- sibile a Tzara. Le aggiungiamo anche corone per la risposta telegrafica al monsieur Aa.
Ci telegrafi quindi per favore il prezzo approssimativo richiesto dal tipo- grafo per il nostro libro. Maass La prego di inviare gli esemplari per Arp e Taeuber a Zurigo, [ Traduzione dal tedesco di Alberto Ricci. Traduzione dal francese di Marta Russo 2. Mi sarei presentato molto volentieri per salutarLa con sincero affetto, ma purtroppo sono ammalato per cui La accolgo nel nostro paese solo tramite questa breve lettera.
Sono contento che noi due procediamo nella stessa direzione, verso gli stessi obiettivi. Si sono ipotizzate diverse spiegazioni. Ora approfitterei del suo aiuto. Caro amico, penso spesso e con affetto al nostro incontro a Budapest. Pas- sammo una bella giornata insieme.
Sarei contento se potessimo stringerci la mano ancora una volta a Parigi. Baal, H. Baal, Introduction, in Id. Farkas s. Schulcz Hrsgg. Baal, Introduc- tion, in Id. Benson ed. La cortina di ferro del tempo? Per il facsimile della lettera si rinvia a E.
Ringrazio la dottoressa Katalin Schulcz per il suo aiuto nella trascrizione della lettera. Collocazione: KM-lev. Gergely, P. Pataki, F. Imre, Meghitt idegenek Collocazione: KM- lev. Baal Georges, Introduction, in Id. Benson T. It is generally accepted that the new literary history focuses less and less on national literatures. Actually this concept has become very problematic over the past twenty years. Contemporary theorists have empha- sized the image of a global literary field see Damrosch ; Moretti ; Petersson The recent shift towards Weltliteratur and its study owes a lot to the revival of comparative literature.
Both these disciplines — literary history and comparative literature — are facing this new object of study and are looking for new tools and meth- odologies to approach it. One of the main issues that literary research has come across lately is certainly the relationship between national literatures and broader literary spaces European, world, or global literature.
These latter additions to the research field are not to be seen as mere collections of national literatures. They question the very relevance of this concept of national literature , and consequently provoke it to reinvent itself. I am obviously referring to the totalizing view over the object, to the prevailing nationalist stakes of literary historical discourse, to the glorification of the literary heritage in a conservative vein.
The compara- tive principles of this discourse were more often than not oriented towards the description of the influence of a certain school or movement over differ- ent literary spaces, and pictured the literary space as a fixed planetary sys- tem where the centre was well-established and could not be displaced.
What defines most of the recent that is, post literary histories is their programmatic relativism that avoids sweeping generalizations or predefined axiological perspectives. By exercising a distant reading as the- orized by Moretti or Perkins , by focusing on differences rather than similarities Petersson , the historical discourse on literature also distances itself from traditional comparativism and its legitimating strate- gies.
Thus we are more likely to find thematic and generic approaches in- stead of strictly chronological ones. The mere figure of literary evolution that has been constitutive for literary history is no longer trustworthy; what took its place is rather a picture of the literary space that rejects any canoni- cal privilege Damrosch What happens to this framework when it is applied to a specific case Romanian literature under Western eyes is the main concern of the following analysis.
Romanian Literature in a Nutshell. A Few Case Studies In order to see how the foreign gaze has shaped the image of a minor literature, one that is also hard to locate on the European map, I have cho- sen several recent literary histories or literature dictionaries authored by Western academics. Their stakes are transnational and comparative. They are all published after in French, English, or Italian.
I have considered three main categories that include chapters or entries on Romanian litera- ture: regional histories of Eastern or Central Europe , European literary histories or dictionaries, and world literature histories or dictionaries. How to Write a Comparative Histoty of Romanian Literature 93 An ambitious project in four volumes that encompasses almost two centu- ries and more than ten literary spaces, this History certainly allots more space for Romanian literature than scientific works in the other two catego- ries.
Thus any historical aspect of Romanian literature that falls under the scope of a certain thematic grouping can be taken into account for instance, cities, borders, literary institutions, national authors, etc. The foreign read- ers can find out details of the literary debate that opposed modernism and traditionalism in the s and s, they can get a comprehensive account of the voices and narrative techniques employed in the Romanian novel, or on the Romanian diaspora in Paris to name but a few points of interest.
This regional literary histo- ry, innovative in structure and wide-ranging in its choice of subjects, allows for an in-depth knowledge of Romanian literature and its interconnections to the region. Obviously this kind of rhizomatic historical structure makes way for peculiarities and boundaries rather than firm canonical positions. Its main advantages are, in my opinion, the analytical passion and the over- coming of the traditional east-west opposition in interpreting literary issues in the region.
Yet the person responsible for the articles on Romanian literature and the one on E. Cioran the only Romanian writer to be treated separately in this work is a certain Titus Barbulesco. The general editors have placed rather unexpectedly Romania in Central Europe, which is distinct from Europe balkanique that contains only Serbian and Croatian literatures.
Although the composition of the chap- ters try to consider each particular, i. Usually the edges of Europe — Portugal and the Balkans — are exiled to the final phrase of a chap- ter. The references to major figures often miss their original points and dis- cuss instead minor issues. For instance, Ion Luca Caragiale undergoes only a brief thematic treatment that omits even the comical dominant of his writ- ings: his works, we are told, display [ De-ale carnavalului [Aventures carnavalesques], 2 I will not draw attention to the errors pertaining to the literary historical accuracy of the text, but I will instead focus on some misrepresentations and axiological mistakes.
The termi- nology is used inconsistently: the chapter on European postmodernism does not employ the notions of Central or Balkan Europe anymore, but of Eastern Europe. Many important aspects of Romanian literature or canon- ical authors are not mentioned at all.
Even though this history of European literature could have done better in many ways, at least it tries to offer a comparative, relational perspec- tive on the various literatures of the continent. As to the insignificant place that Romanian literature occupies within it, not only are the editors to be blamed, but so are the lack of good translations and the consequent limited circulation in other cultural spaces. A spe- cialist in Romanian literature can gladly note here the impressive number of separate entries dedicated to Romanian writers.
When she offers an overview on the history of Romanian literature, Cleynen-Serghiev pro- vides enough information and adequate commentary. Her comparative reference point is of course French literature. The bibliography for this sec- tion is rather conservative but generally relevant. What strikes us when reading the contents of La Nuova Enciclopedia della letteratura Garzanti is the recent inclusion of Romanian literature.
This mas- sive work of more than 1. Obviously the space alloted to a certain writer differs according to canoni- cal and circulation criteria. Eliot, and twenty times smaller than to Shakespeare. The biographi- cal presentation shows an appetite for sensational details such as the con- troversy over the cause of his death. The section devoted to the canonical core of world literature does not discuss any Romanian work it was quite unlikely for it to do that, anyway.
Nevertheless, the historical profile of Romanian literature is accurate and comprehensive, despite small typographical errors. Concluding Remarks. The Europeanness of Romanian Literature — an Open Issue To summarize this review of historical works I want to briefly assess the relevance of a hot issue — that of the Europeanness of Romanian litera- ture.
Its hesitation between synchronizing itself with European trends and movements and preserving its traditions is too well known perhaps it is its very cultural mark to be necessary to re-present it here. The image that all these literary histories and literature dictionaries construct of Romanian literature is that of a European literature, albeit a minor one.
The canonical selection is not the same as in most Romanian literary histories, but this is perfectly acceptable. Obviously the specific features of Romanian literature are not taken into account in this comparative context that mostly values influences and exchanges between various cultural-literary spaces. I think that an interesting opening of Romanian literature in our mul- ticultural and global literary field would be to assume the very attractive status under foreign eyes of an emergent literature.
In addition, the postcolonial and post-communist, I would add interest in redefining the concept of syn- chronization as hybridization — as Homi Bhabha does4 — would also prove rewarding for our present view over the literary tradition. We can only regret that Romania-based literary historians, with few ex- ceptions, have shown little interest in contextualizing their object in such a manner, beyond the traditional study of influences.
Benoit-Dusausoy, G. References Bhabha H. Damrosch David, What is World Literature? Petersson Margareta, Helgesson Stefan, et al. Le terme «antho- logie» provient du mot grec qui signifie «choix des fleurs». Le canon vit de son agrandis- sement. Notes 1 A. Berardinelli, La poesia verso la prosa.
Controversie sulla lirica moderna, Bollati Boringhieri, Torino , p. Mengaldo a cura di , Poeti italiani del Novecento, Mondadori, Milano The book includes the most recent research on the relationship between landscape and renewable energy in Southern European countries, from a wide range of disciplines. This book provides timely, multidisciplinary cross-national comparison of the institutional and social processes through which renewable energy landscapes have emerged in Southern Europe.
On the basis of case studies in these countries, it analyzes the way in which and the extent to which the development of renewable energies has affected landscape forms and whether or not it has contributed to a reformulation of landscape practices and values in these countries. Landscape is conceived broadly, as a material, social, political and historical process embedded into the local realm, going beyond aesthetic.
The case studies analyze renewable energy landscapes in Southern Europe on different political and geographical scales, and compare different types of renewable energy such as wind, hydro, solar and biomass power. The contributors are leading experts from Spain, France, Italy and Portugal. The book is intended for researchers, graduate students and professionals interested in geography, landscape and planning. Marina Frolova. Publisher : Springer Dordrecht.
Hardcover ISBN : Softcover ISBN : Edition Number : 1. Number of Pages : XI,
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