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Within the montane and subalpine zones, the investigated vegetation classes are compared with regard to specific hydrological parameters. Through comparison, hydrological differences between the vegetation classes can be emphasized. The study also contributes to the formulation of management guidelines that define the most adequate forest composition, forest structure and land use practices in order to optimise water quality and water yield for the drinking water supply of the City of Vienna.
METHODS A comparison between the specific vegetation classes, which are represented by the experimental plots, has been conducted on three plots within the montane zone and on two plots within the subalpine zone. In order to represent widespread forest types of the montane zone, a natural old grown mixed stand of spruce, fir and beech B1, natural vegetation about years old , a homogeneous 60 year old spruce plantation F1 and a regeneration area B2, young trees and clearcut vegetation have been selected as appropriate for the installation of three experimental plots.
They are situated at the same altitude m a. The soils are calcareous leptosols and the bedrock is dolomite mixed with limestone particles. On the forested plots the humus layers are thick and variable, on the regeneration plot the humus layers are shallow and relatively homogenous. The thickest humus layers can be found on the B1 plot the natural mixed stand of spruce, fir and beech. On the Rax plateau, two experimental plots have been installed at m a.
The first one is situated74 within a krummholz area L1 - Pinus mugo and the second one within an open subalpine grassland A1. Krummholz vegetation and subalpine and alpine grasslands cover large areas of these altitudinal regions. The area on the Rax plateau is level and slightly undulating, the soils on both plots are chromic cambisols and the bedrock is limestone.
The humus layer on the krummholz area L1 is shallow and homogeneous around 5 cm , while there is only mull-humus on the grassland plot A1. On all five plots a comparable set of measuring instruments has been installed.
In order to guarantee measurement cycles throughout the year, data loggers have been installed in plastic boxes within the soils. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured at a height of 2 m on all five plots. Soil temperature was measured at 5 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm and 45 cm depths on all five plots.
Wind speed was measured 2 m above the ground on all experimental plots except L1 krummholz-plot and 2 m above the crowns of two dominant trees in B1 spruce-fir-beech plot and in F1 spruce plantation plot. Solar radiation was measured 3 m above the ground at two places: in B2 regeneration plot , which is the open reference base within the montane zone and in A1 subalpine grassland , which is the open reference base within the subalpine zone. These probes have been installed at 5 locations in B1 and three locations in F1 and B2.
Within the subalpine zone, soil moisture probes have been installed at depths of 20 cm and 35 cm below the soil surface. Both on the A1 plot and on the L1 plot, the measuring design has been installed in two locations. Because of the high gravel contents of the karstic soils, the theta probes have been installed horizontally in such a way that the rods are surrounded by homogenised autochthonous soil material, settled to its natural bulk density, instead of inserting them into the natural layered soil.
This approach was selected because of the significant underestimation of soil moisture content caused by gaps of soil around the rods, which frequently occurs if the sensors are placed into undisturbed rocky soils v. Wilpert et al. The soil where the sensor is inserted should also not be compacted Robinson et al. The theta probes were installed only into the undisturbed soil within the naturally dense and homogeneous humus layers.
In order to describe the precipitation events, bulk raingauges have been installed for measuring precipitation in the open area gross rainfall in B2, close to B1 and in A1. Within the montane zone, canopy throughfall collectors have been installed at all three plots: five in B1, three in F1 and two in B2. In the subalpine zone, six canopy throughfall collectors have been installed in L1 within the krummholz bushes.
At the B1 plot where beech is growing, stemflow gauges have been installed on three beech trees in order to characterise interception losses for this mixed stand spruce, fir, beech, maple. During the winter season, snow cover snow depth and the water equivalent of the snow cover have been investigated at all plots, following a snow course scheme.
At all five plots, lysimeters have been installed in order to obtain seepage water for water quality analysis. The suction lysimeters ceramic cups with 8 cm diameter were installed 15 cm and 60 cm below the soil surface at the three plots in the montane zone.
In B1 this device has been set up in six locations, in F1 and B2 in three locations. Due to the soil properties in the subalpine zone high rates of rock material in the deeper soil horizons , the ceramic cups have been installed there at depths of 15 cm and 30 cm. At the A1 and L1 plot the lysimeter device has been set up in two locations. The seepage water samples were analysed for nitrate, ammonium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, pH value and electric conductivity.
Rainfall in general is a phenomenon which shows high spatial variability Lopes, ; Hanson et al. Between the two experimental plots B1 spruce-fir-beech plot and F1 spruce plantation in the montane zone, gross annual rainfall shows some variability see Table 1, GR. Interception within the stands B1 and F1 is highly variable Durocher, , and each precipitation event shows different interception rates depending on the75 intensity of rainfall Price et al.
Due to the high variability of the canopy structure within the mixed stand B1 spruce-fir-beech plot in relation to the homogeneous stand in F1 spruce plantation , the variability of canopy throughfall is also higher in B1 than in F1; the standard deviation of canopy throughfall is therefore higher in B1 than in F1 Table 1.
Stemflow on the beech trees within B1 is responsible for the difference in net precipitation between the mixed stand B1 and the spruce plantation F1. It also seems to be obvious that higher values of gross precipitation in wet years e. The variation of interception loss for each precipitation event is dependent on the intensity of rainfall. Intensive rainfall leads to lower interception rates than less intense rainfall. In F1 spruce plantation interception loss on an event basis during the measurement period in ranged between 8.
During the measurement period in the interception loss in F1 ranged between The years with higher rainfall amounts also show higher net precipitation. Table 1: Overview for summer canopy throughfall and net precipitation for a mixed spruce-fir-beech stand B1 and a homogeneous spruce plantation F1. Values are expressed as a percentage of GR. In the subalpine zone, interception loss within the krummholz plot L1 - Pinus mugo is highly variable. The variations of canopy throughfall within the krummholz plot could be related to stemflow dynamics of the Pinus mugo plants, which have not been measured because of technical obstacles due to the shape of this plant.
Pinus mugo grows with a high variation in the angle of its branches, so that locating the place for mounting stemflow gauges is not simple. In the desert of Arizona it was possible to mount stemflow gauges at the base of creosote bushes Larrea tridentata Whitford et al. Another reason for the canopy throughfall variations could be the capability of Pinus mugo to intercept moisture from fog and clouds occult precipitation. At the edges of the krummholz groups, a higher rate of moisture is likely to be intercepted.
In other montane forests of the earth, occult precipitation is an important quantity Hunzinger, ; Flemming, Wind-driven rainfall can also have the effect of inhomogeneous distribution of canopy throughfall Herwitz and Slye, The canopy throughfall troughs quantify occult precipitation only as a unit together with gross rainfall, therefore it is not possible to measure the percentage of total precipitation which is occult precipitation with this technique.
Soil temperature is influenced by vegetation cover. The monthly means during the summer season were also higher in A1 than in L1; the difference, viewed over all measured soil horizons, varied between 0. The trend of higher soil temperatures in A1 during the summer season was inverted during the winter season, where L1 exhibited warmer soil than A1. Within the krummholz, the soil did not freeze during the winter season e.
During the snowmelt period, higher soil temperatures under krummholz vegetation L1 allowed melting water to percolate into the soil, while on the frozen soil in A1 open grassland percolation could not occur on the whole area during the same time. Fig 1: Soil temperature 5 cm below the soil surface: A1 subalpine grassland and L1 krummholz area, Pinus mugo.
The effect of soil temperature during the winter season has been estimated by a comparative analysis of soil moisture and soil temperature dynamics during the snowmelt period in the spring season in the subalpine zone. Melting water or precipitation water percolates more easily into soils without ground frost than into frozen soils Shanley and Chalmers, In the montane zone, soil temperature also shows the influence of vegetation cover.
The homogeneous spruce plantation F1 exhibits slightly higher soil temperatures than the mixed stand in B1. Soil temperature is a key parameter for many geo-chemical processes, which start to be evident after using the clearcutting technique of harvesting Likens and Bormann, ; Reynolds et al.
Soil moisture dynamics showed different behaviour for each vegetation type. In the subalpine zone for example, soil moisture remained higher under krummholz vegetation L1 - Pinus mugo than under subalpine grassland vegetation A1 after a winter season with a high level of snow accumulation e.
During long lasting dry spells, which occurred in the year during the month of August, soil moisture dropped more quickly at L1 than at A1. In June , soil moisture at every measurement plot in L1 was higher than in A1. In August the soil moisture levels in L1 were lower than in A1 at two plots. Soil moisture is, especially during dry periods, controlled by the soil type and vegetation Gautam et al. The snowmelt water percolated77 with higher ease into the soils which were covered by krummholz vegetation.
Variations of soil moisture conditions are higher within the krummholz area L1 than within the subalpine grassland area A1. This can be related to higher variability of precipitation distribution due to the growing shape of the Pinus mugo plants.
Variations of soil moisture conditions due to the variation of soils within the subalpine zone of the Rax are not substantial, because the soils on A1 and L1 are identical chromic cambisols. Variations due to differing depths of groundwater table can also be excluded since groundwater is not relevant for karstic sites at this altitude, but variations due to groundwater do occur in watersheds with crystalline bedrocks Beldring et al.
The clearcut was made after wind blowdown, which took place 25 years ago. On the plot in B1 the seepage water shows varying nitrate concentrations, which are generally lower than in F1. After clearcutting, the nitrate concentration in seepage water can reach high values v. This may be due to lower atmospheric N inputs in the Rax area. The pH value and the electric conductivity of the seepage water generally increase with soil depth.
The highest concentrations of nitrate and ammonium in precipitation water crown throughfall have been found beneath the crowns of spruce in F1 and B1. The tendency of spruce to filter higher amounts of pollutants is also highlighted in other studies Rothe et al. The five experimental plots represent characteristic vegetation types within the water protection area. The setting of the instrumentation is suited for the operation of the sensors during the summer season as well as during the winter season.
The first results of this project show hydrological differences between the monitored vegetation types. These differences can be used in order to elaborate more specific forest and land use management concepts for water protection purposes. The continuation of the monitoring processes has been funded by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture and by the Municipal Departments 31 and 49 of the City of Vienna. The authors want to express their acknowledgements to the representatives of these institutions.
K, Hornung, M. Britain Forestry, vol 66, no 1. Beldring, S. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, , Soil Technology, 9, Burwell, Cambridge, England. Research and Development, vol 20, no 2, Hydrological Processes, vol 4, Feichtinger, F. Flemming, G. Gautam, M. Journal of Hydrology, , Hager, H.
Hanson, C. Joseph, USA. Herwitz, S. Hunzinger, H. Mountain Research and Development, 17, Wiener Hochquellenwasserleitung. Forstamt und Landwirtschaftsbetriebe der Stadt Wien, Wien. Likens, G. Lopes, V. Catena, 28, Martin, C. Price, A. Reynolds, B. Environmental Pollution, 77, Robertson, S. Forest Ecology and Management, , Robinson, D. Rothe, A.
Shanley, J. Hydrological Processes, 13, Smidt, S. FBVA-Berichte, , Wilpert, K. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, , Whitford, W. Journal of Arid Environments, 35, Zukrigl, K. Mitteilungen der Forstlichen Bundesversuchsanstalt No , Wien.
Cosandey1, C. Martin2, L. Savina1, J. Forest enhances evaporation through two main processes: 1 Deeper root systems use the water stored in the soil more efficiently during the summer period. As a result, more water is retained in the soil during the following autumn before the resumption of winter discharge, and annual runoff is reduced.
These differences are due to interception losses. Interception losses for the two basins were compared. Results show that cutting the forest did reduce interception losses. However, the hydrological behaviour of the cut catchment changed back to its pre-cut behaviour relatively quickly and clearly before the new plants had developed enough to be considered as forest cover.
The reduction is all the greater when conditions include a large water deficit, abundant water reserves, and also frequent but light rainfall Cosandey and Robinson, On the other hand, evaporation can limit plant transpiration, and it is difficult to evaluate the increase in overall evapotranspiration that results from the direct evaporation of intercepted water. It is not possible to know the value for the increase from direct measurements of the intercepted water that does not reach the soil, since a partial compensation can occur with a decrease in plant transpiration the available energy is used more quickly in order to evaporate the water that is more easily available on the surfaces of leaves or branches.
A greater reserve allows more evaporation during the summer months, and therefore lower flows in autumn that start later in the season due to the larger amount of water taken up by the soil. Of course the delay is accompanied by a decrease in runoff. The forest also reduces winter flows directly, due to the direct evaporation of part of the precipitation that is intercepted by the canopy and does not reach the soil.
Such higher winter evaporation naturally depends on the type of vegetation - a heath with broom growing on it is likely much more efficient than a broad-leaved forest. Evaporation during the summer period when evaporation demand exceeds rainfall is dependent on the available water precipitation plus the soil water storage. Interception has no impact on precipitation, or on soil water storage, and so it does not change the values for evapotranspiration during the summer.
The resulting interception losses, therefore, have an effect on flows only during the winter period and can be estimated only within that framework. When a forest is cut, the estimation of evaporation before and after the cut should make it possible to estimate the differences between a forested catchment and an unforested one, and therefore the impact of interception losses on runoff.
These are the spruce-forested Latte 0. The mean temperature at m is 6. Mean annual precipitation is about mm, and ranges between and mm. On the average, the soils and superficial deposits are from 60 cm Sapine to 70 cm Latte and Cloutasses thick. Filtration rates for the soils as determined in simulated rain conditions range from 78 to more than mm h-1 under undisturbed vegetation and for well-protected soils Cosandey et al.
In the following study, the thin soils prevent the vegetation from developing a very deep root system, so there is very little difference in the soil moisture storage. These reserves probably were somewhat depleted when the forest was cut, at least during the two years following the cut. Because these values are somewhat arbitrary, they do constitute a source of uncertainty in the following developments.
If the estimated interception losses are taken into consideration, however, the magnitude of the uncertainty is negligible. The problem, well known, is that the value of Ae is the residual term of the calculation, which includes errors in rainfall and runoff storage measurements. This method reduces the error concerning rainfall which is quite the same for the two basins, and has no consequence on the difference of Ae estimation and the error concerning runoff, due to calibration curves, which remain the same for each basin respectively.
It also affected plant transpiration, although we are operating here on the hypothesis that plant transpiration can be ignored during the months of winter dormancy, especially given the low temperatures involved. The results are shown in Tables 1 and 2. There are two preliminary remarks: 1 Values of Actual evaporation are higher than values of Potential evaporation computed using the Turc formula from local data. The Turc formula is not the best for Pe estimation.
It is clear that measurement errors both on rainfall and runoff play a role; but as seen above, the consequences are negligible. Table 2: Data for Ae calculation. Latte Basin Cloutasses Basin hydrol. Fig 2 shows that after the cut, the ratio between evaporation in the two basins, which was larger than 1 before the cut became less than 1 after.
There was a large decrease in interception losses during the winter that followed the cut, explained by the reduction in evaporating surface area: more than a third of the trees were cut and, although debris from the cut was strewn over the ground, there was no plant colonisation to cover the deforested areas. The situation rapidly changed, however.
By the following summer, abundant herbaceous great willow herb and shrub raspberry bush vegetation had developed; nowhere was bare ground to be found. The behaviour remained similar even though some very small trees were planted very slow growth in the difficult climatic conditions, so their impact was still very limited.
In particular, it is clear that using water balances involves the risk of accumulating errors in data measurements principally rainfall and discharge. Comparing neighbouring catchments is a way to reduce this type of risk, however, especially since it makes it easier to take any possible impact of climate variability into account. Beyond such uncertainty, we felt that it was of interest to give further thought to the hydrologic processes that bring about lower flows under forest cover.
Once a higher level of evaporation during the winter period was identified on the forested catchment, and it was ascertained that it could be due only to losses by interception, it became easier to understand why the overall increase in runoff that was observed after the cut only affected minor floods. The same cannot be said of a relatively light rainfall event. In that case, the depth of runoff measures only a few millimetres, and can therefore be heavily influenced in terms of relative value by a reduction in the effective rainfall due to the interception of part of the rain by the plant cover.
Calder, I. Water Services, 83, U, Armand Colin, Paris, pp. Morton, F. Turc, L. The main task is to determine the amount of snow storage in forest based on measurements in open areas. Data from selected pairs of snow profiles in the open area and in the forest, simultaneously measured in the same locality, were tested to prove the homogeneity of measured data and to establish the relationship between snow storage in an open area and in a forest.
It was found that: i the relationship can be defined by means of linear regression correlations for all profiles are significant ; ii the parameters vary with the site of measurement profile and accumulation or melting period, respectively.
Keywords snow measurement, snow water equivalent, forest and open area, Jizera Mts. This information is gained from the network of precipitation and climatological observation stations that, for historical and pragmatic reasons, are all situated in open-area localities. None of them measure the depth of snow cover and its water equivalent in forested areas, though most of the areas where floods are generated lie predominantly in forested regions.
The observation-based experience proves that the regime of accumulation and snow cover melting in forested regions differs significantly from the regime in non-forested regions, both in time and space. Especially during snow melting periods there are often considerable differences.
To take the different type of land use into account it is necessary to quantify these differences. The different results of these snow measurements pointed to the necessity of paying more attention to the execution of paired snow measurements — in forest and open area in the same locality — considering the regional topography, altitude and vegetation cover.
This would enable the systematic and consistent quantification of differences in measured data. The final goal of this effort is to use this acquired knowledge for the innovation and improvement of hydrological forecasting procedures. Therefore in the last two decades, detailed snow studies were performed at the Experimental Base of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute in the Jizera Mts. The main goal of this paper is to derive the relationships between the snow water equivalent in forest and open areas.
As a result the monoculture spruce forest was damaged and started to die. The 7 watersheds areas of basins vary from 1. Fig 1: Location of the studied basins and snow profiles in the Jizera Mts. Time series of snow measurements performed both under trees and on clearings are available. The position of the profiles is given in Fig 1. The aim of measurements concentrates on two topics: to establish the relationship of areal distribution of snow to altitude and to determine the differences in snow accumulation and snow melting in forests compared to open areas.
The number of selected measured localities is influenced by the character of the winter season, i. The beginning and the end of the winter monitoring season depends on snow cover formation and melting. The beginning usually starts in November or in December and continues to the end of March or to mid April.
The measurements of snow depth and its water equivalent are performed in snow profiles by a weighing snow sampler. The profiles were chosen to be easily accessible from the road but far enough not to be influenced by wind effects. The profiles are 15 to 20 meters long, at the beginning and at the end marked by poles in order to be easily located in the open terrain, in the forest marked by coloured triangles.
The snow depth is surveyed at 10 points, at 3 of them the density of snow is also measured. The depths of snow are read on the centimetre scale on the outer side of the sample tube; the density is derived from the weight of the samples evaluated with a digital weighing instrument. The period , when the snow measuring network became already stabilised, was chosen for the analyses. The data analyses include homogeneity testing, assessment of altitude influence on snow water equivalent SWE , and the quantification of differences between snow cover accumulation and melting in open space and in forested environments where sufficient data are available.
In the profiles listed in Table 1, paired profiles are selected which have enough measurements to be statistically evaluated concerning the relationship between forest and open area SWE. Locality Profile No. The homogeneity testing proves that the double mass curves are more or less without large deviations, both for the period of snow accumulation and snow melting. In Table 2, the selected profiles are statistically evaluated concerning the relationship between the forest and open area SWE.
In three cases the number of measurements is sufficient to divide the winter seasons into two parts: January-February accumulation and March-April melting. This rough division was introduced due to the fact that air temperature which could be a better criterion was not measured in the observation period.
All correlation coefficients between the SWE in forest and in open areas are significant at the 0. However, the results for the whole winter season are also included because they make it possible to derive the snow storage in the forest based on measurements in the open area in the given locality. From Table 2 it also follows that the parameters differ from site to site, and that it would be difficult to derive one equation relationship even for such a relatively small region.
The correlation coefficients between the SWE in open areas and in forests are not significantly related to the geographical conditions or vegetation characteristics of the profile altitude, slope, age and crown density. The influence of the geographical and vegetation parameters on the regression coefficients is difficult to interpret because one has to differentiate between the period of accumulation and snowmelt, and only three profiles provide enough measurements for such analyses.
Data from more profiles will be analysed in the future to clarify this question. The course of the SWE in the winter season is presented in Fig 3, where the accumulation role of forest in the spring period is demonstrated. In Fig 4 the relationship between the SWE in the forest and in clearings for two winter subseasons is demonstrated. The results can be interpreted as follows: the lines in the figure have different slopes and different intercept values for each sub-season.
From the intercept value for the period of snowmelt Table 2 it follows that in spring more snow is preserved in the forest than in clearings. When the clearings are already free of snow, snow storage in the forest still remains with an expected value of The results for the accumulation period substantiate that the snow accumulates earlier in the open areas than in forests negative intercept.
A bPair profile Time period in winter No. Usually altitude is considered to be one of the most significant parameters influencing snow depth and SWE - when the set of stations covers a sufficient range of altitudes. However this is not the case for stations in the Jizera Mts.
The minimum snow profile altitude is m, the maximum one is m. The average correlation coefficient from a total number of 47 cases is 0. Results presented in this paper have shown that the relationship between the SWE measured in open areas and in adjacent forests is significant in all analysed profiles. These equations could serve to estimate the snow storage accumulated in the forest based on the measurements in clearings in a given locality.
However, the form of the relationship regression equation reveals high variability even in such a relatively small research area, and therefore it is not possible to derive one general equation for a given region. Data from more profiles will be evaluated to try to relate the regression parameters to the geographical and vegetation conditions.
Design of representative snow measuring net. The Jizera Mts. Experimental watershed. Chamas, V. Kantor, P. The design of rational snow measuring net. Maggi1, F. Maraga2, C. The small basin Valle della Gallina Chicken Valley, 1km2 is located in the Alpine region of Piedmont characterised by a Mediterranean climate.
The sediment collected in the concrete pool is delivered by flowing water as bed load transport of materials detached by breaking up and weathering of bedrock volcanic rhyolite and azonal soils; suspended load is irrelevant due to soil texture coarse sand is dominant.
In a year period , the erosive rainfall events which exceeded a threshold selected by a standard rainfall depth of A correlation analysis was performed by comparing the annual sedimentation amounts measured in the concrete pool at the outlet of the basin with corresponding pluviometric values of annual rainfall and erosive rainfall, number of erosive events, number of rainfall hours, mean erosive rainfall intensity and precipitation erosive factor.
In fact, longer rainfall duration is considered to be able to lead to sediment discharge of event transportable materials even without surface drainage continuity to the main channel. It is known that a pluviometric threshold must be reached, above which soil particles are mobilised, detached and carried away by water erosion. The data from 30 years of measurements in many regions of the USA show that cumulative effects of moderate storms and occasional severe storms should be considered in order to estimate average annual soil loss.
The erosive capacity seems to be determined by a rainfall height of at least After studies on 18 representative catchment basin in the Apennine region of Central Italy, accelerated soil erosion was noted as the main source of sediment transport in the rivers Farroni et al.
Experimental studies following lithological, geomorphological and pedological surveys of the Valle della Gallina basin were carried out by field measurements on 7 slope plots and 2 small watersheds Since , the studies have focused on sediment yield measured by a sedimentary station located at the basin outlet. Lithological uniformity of the rocks making up the basin and climatic uniformity of the area constitute homogeneous factors that are important for the analysis of erosion and transport processes associated92 with water as concerns the typology of the rock present rhyolites , geomorphological evolution dominant erosion , and azonal soil development.
Sediment transport measurements in the channel have shown that bed load sediment is mobilised at peak flow thresholds of 0. In addition to the investigation of relationships between sediment delivery and water discharge at the outlet of the basin, which has been carried out since , the investigation of the relationships between rainfall and sediment supply has started. This work presents the first results of correlation analyses conducted at the scale of a surface drainage system between sediment delivery data and rainfall data considered erosive equal to or greater than The main channel is 4 m deep and 5 m wide at the basin outlet.
Since , a rainfall gauging station has been operating in the watershed at m altitude; the basin outlet m a. No man-made works are present. Table 1: Characteristics of the Valle della Gallina experimental basin. Area 1.
The basin is located in a rainy part of the Italian Alpine region, with heavy rains and extensive soil erosion. The region has high daily rainfall values some of the highest recorded maxima in Italy. Rainstorms are frequent during the summer. The pluviometric monthly regime of the basin was classified within the Mediterranean climate system of the continental type and is characterised by two maximums, the first93 in spring and the second in autumn, with the principal minimum in winter Caroni, According to the map of the Fournier index distribution band Fournier, adapted for northern Italy Maggi et al.
Fig 1: Valle della Gallina experimental basin shown on the pluviovariability index map of the Alpine hydrographic system in north-western Italy after Maggi et al. On the right: drainage network of the basin from aerial photographs; the arrow indicates the hydrometric and sedimentary station in the main channel at the outlet of the basin. Closely related to the pluviometric regime, the discharge regime follows rain showers with a delay of about 1 hour.
Compared with mean annual discharge 0. A study of the soil composition and erosion processes conducted by Biancotti described widespread phenomena of physical disaggregation of the outcrop, which were associated with landforms of accelerated erosion, and which limited pedogenetic development. In , the soil texture was characterised from 57 manual borings on the entire basin area with a collection of samples down to the bedrock surface at depths from 0. Erosive processes in the watershed, which supply sediment to the drainage system, occur as sheet and rill erosion, beginning at the head of the basin from gullies several centimetres to several meters deep, from a dense dendritic network incised to the bedrock down to the main channel.
Vegetation consists of mature broadleaf woods with occasional evergreens. Fig 2. Valle della Gallina experimental basin. On the left: head watershed in winter showing the erosion effects on the watershed divide. On the right: view of the hydrometric and sedimentary station in the main channel at the basin outlet in winter. Sediment transport The hydrometric station at the basin outlet was set up to trap sediments transported by water.
The trap consists of a pool set into the channel 5 m wide lined with concrete on the bottom and the banks, extending 8 m upstream from the hydrometric section, with a capacity of nearly 40 m3. On the pool border longitudinal walls, 32 metallic markers were installed to periodically measure the transverse sections of accumulated sediment which are used in calculating the sediment volume.
The pool is usually cleaned manually or with a mechanical hoe, depending on the amount of sediment to be removed, with occasional grain size sampling. So far, the pool has been able to contain the transported material between cleanings. The sediment delivered to the outlet of the basin is produced by bed load transport processes. It is represented by component fractions having the same grain sizes as the detached parent rock fragments which generate the soil.
The sediment ranges in size from rare and occasional boulders about mm , frequent gravel with modal class at mm , to sand and silt, depending on the peak discharges and sediment transport pulses during the event Govi et al. Since , correlation analyses between discharge and sediment supply have shown that transport occurs with discharges above the threshold of 0.
The trapped volumes are also related to water volumes over , m3 Maraga et al. The grain sizes increase with peak discharges, whereas the sediment volumes trapped in the sedimentary pool increase with the water flow volumes produced by the rainfall event. However, sediment delivery is related to the sediment recharge in the channel reach upstream from the sedimentary pool Godone and Maraga, Sediment suspension sampled during a flood with a peak discharge of 1.
The sedimentary pool with trapped material and the grain size zone from 27 grain size analyses, based on samples of different amounts 4 to kg , is shown in Fig 3. On the left: sedimentary pool showing filling condition in November , during the manual cleaning. On the right: grain size zone determined by 27 grain size sample cumulative curves. In the present study, we adopted the criterion of calculating the annual erosive rain total from single erosive rainfall events the event amounts were summed to form the annual total.
The erosive rainfall events with amounts equal to or greater than It is obtained by adding the energy values relative to each constant precipitation intensity interval; - I30 is the maximum intensity of rain in an event for a duration of 30 minutes. It is obtained by dividing the hourly rainfall values. RESULTS For the year period , the rainfall amounts were compared with the sediment volumes recorded at the Valle della Gallina basin outlet as an indirect assessment of erosion and sediment source in the basin.
The abnormality in the temporal trend for all variables during those years was found to correspond with a series of rainy years in the western Alpine region for example the year , which could signal a similar series input Figs 4, 5. In the study basin, the peak flows with sediment transport were generated by rainstorms. Appreciable changes in the bed form of the channel were observed during events with sediment trapped in the sedimentary pool. Channel depth variations on the order of 0.
Because these highs and lows have been interpreted as a wave translation pattern in the sediment bed load transfer, it appeared logical to conclude that sediment supply by headwaters from small watersheds, whose development times are unknown, could play a role in this process. To better appreciate the interdependence between sediment delivery in the hydrographic system and rainfall events, the statistical analysis will be widened according to two statistical approaches.
One approach will develop on a time scale of 20 years the same correlation of annual variability to show any recurrent anomalies. The other approach will search for new variables that may influence on an hourly and daily scale the single rainfall events associated with corresponding sediment transport events in the main channel at the outlet of the basin.
Time variations in annual volumes of sediment delivered m3 corresponding in the left panel to total rainfall amount P and erosive rainfall amount erosive P , and in the right panel to the precipitation erosive factor R. Fig 5. Time variations in annual volumes of sediment delivered m3 corresponding in the left panel to the number of events, and in the right panel to the number of erosive hours. Field data collection and processing were conducted by F. Di Nunzio meteorological and hydrometric stations and by F.
Godone, R. Massobrio, M. Trevisiol and E. Viola sedimentary station. Grain size analysis was conducted by R. Massobrio; figures were drawn by E. Proceedings of Int. Anselmo, V. Bellino, L. Proceedings of 2nd Int. Biancotti, A. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, no. Caroni, E. Mineraria Subalpina, no 4, Idronomia Montana, 20, Special Issue on Dynamics of water and sediments in mountain basins, Farroni, A. Fournier, F. Presses Universitaires de France, pp.
Godone, F. Govi, M. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 38, 2, Maggi, I. Maraga, F. Tropeano, D. Studies on experimental areas. In Jan de Poe ed. Wischmeier, W. Soukup, E. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the soil layers on drainage runoff. Drainage runoff is a component of the hydrologic balance of a drained agriculturally used watershed.
The drainage system, first of all, creates drainage runoff and thus affects the soil moisture regime at both the soil profile and at a particular locality. The system of piezometers consists of 20 piezometers placed in two rows parallel to the drain tube. The piezometric heads and the soil moisture regime were analysed in the relatively wet years , and dry years , Any layer of the soil can be considered as an underground reservoir partly connected with the neighbouring layers to which it can pass water.
Some layers take part in the water circulation process in an active way while others probably act as insulators. Monitoring proves that the circulation unsteadiness is higher in the deeper layers of the drainage system constructed in a sloping terrain.
The measurement results show that changes in piezometric heads vary in the different layers of the drained profile and in its substrate layers. The results of the soil moisture regime measurements in the pairs of selected years prove the effect of the inserted retardation elements, particularly during the periods when the soil moisture is changing significantly.
The aim of the study was to assess the dynamics of the moisture regime of soils drained by the classic way, i. Water streaming in the drained soil profile is usually simplified in theoretical works, and authors generally introduce so-called simplifying preconditions e. It will always be necessary, however, to compare the results of theoretical approaches with the values measured in the field. The catchment belongs to the Central Bohemian Hills with elevations — m above sea level.
The geological environment is formed by slaty strata of the early Paleozoic. The land is partly drained by underground pipe drainage. It was not the value of the deviation from the standard that was decisive for the selection, but the greatest conformity possible of annual precipitation totals.
The courses of soil moisture, precipitation, piezometric pressure and runoff data were processed for the above-mentioned years and periods. While precipitation, piezometric pressure and runoff were measured continuously, soil moisture measurements were conducted in an interval of a fortnight.
Soil moisture was measured in three locations HV2, HV4 and on the retardation drainage , always at the drain and in the middle between parallel pipe drains. Measurements were carried out by a neutron probe type Troxler at depths of 0. Precipitation was measured ombrographically by a precipitation gauge located in the catchment the catchment area before the year was 8.
In the catchment, the stream through-flow was measured at the final measuring profile and drainage runoff was measured limnigraphically in the manholes shafts of three drainage groups. Piezometric heights pressures were measured in two places in a slightly sloping position marked HV2 and on the stream level marked HV4 by a system of 20 piezometers located in parallel with the pipe drains in two rows at the drains and between the drains at a depth of 0. Six piezometers were mounted with limnigraphs in the piezometric system HV2 and four limnigraphs in HV4 so that a continuous record was obtained.
In the first phase, a two-month period was chosen from 28 July to 31 September for the drained area in the sloping gradient of HV2. This was a period with increased precipitation activity and the expected reaction of the piezometric system was confirmed. The time step chosen for computer processing of pressure changes was 1 hour. In the second phase, dry and wet periods were chosen in each year and with regard to the drainage runoff response in which piezometric pressures were being stored in the database in an interval of 6 hours.
The piezometers were constructed as vertical cased bores. The casings are of PVC tubes with diameter 0. Characteristics of soil and drainage system From the point of view of soil type, the soils are brown gleied and illimerised. The classical underground drainage spacing is 9 m in the surroundings of HV4, 18 m at HV2, and 11 m with the underground retardation of drainage runoff.
The depth of the collection drains is 0. The drainage piping is of baked clay. From the point of view of water streaming to the drains, the important depth is the depth of the so-called impermeable subsoil that is about 0. Piezometric pressures courses were evaluated in the wet year and in the dry year The piezograph of the dry period of the wet year Fig 1 and the piezograph of the wet period of the dry year Fig 2 is represented in the enclosed pictures.
Both graphs Figs 1and 2 are depicting the situation for the sloping position HV2. The soil moisture of the drained profile was expressed in percentage of volume for the depths of 0. The moisture at the depth of 0. In the level position wetting of the soil profile occurs by water from the stream or by underground water inflow. Drainage continues permanently but underground water contributions evidently exceed the precipitation volume.
In the depth of 0. In the slightly sloping position in HV2 it is only the excess infiltrated water from precipitation that is carried away. In the dry year the moisture near the surface of the soil was markedly lower in the level position HV4 than in the sloping position HV2. The opposite is true with increasing depth. The course of the soil moisture content at depths 0. In the years to soil moisture was also monitored on the retardation drainage in which the damming element — regulator was permanently closed.
During closure, the water in the regulation element is dammed by 0. Drainage occurs also during water retardation, however, the runoff intensity is reduced as a consequence of water retardation. During the summer season, water from the soil profile is extracted by transpiration and partly also by evaporation. Due to the influence of an extreme drought in the year caused by a period of almost two months without precipitation, the lowest soil moisture values were measured as early as by the end of June.
While in the year , maximum soil moisture reduction occurred by the end of September, that is as late as by the end of the vegetation period. Water retardation in the drainage system causes a time shift in the onset of the critical drought period. Pressure changes in the piezometric system HV2 as well as HV4 were evident to the depth of 1.
The deepest piezometers 2. While all the layers are totally saturated, water streaming occurs in the direction to the drains from as far as the depth of 1. The outlet branches of the piezographs hydrograms that usually follow after larger precipitation were analysed from the viewpoint of pressure change in time. However, for the time being it is not possible to evaluate the part of pressure reduction as a consequence of the creation of drainage runoff and of the influence of filtration.
Less permeable layers form impermeable layers from the point of view of streaming. Piezometric pressures were put in context with the moisture dynamics of the drained soil profile to the depth of 1. In view of the depth of the soil moisture measurements that was carried out to 1.
The analysis of the results of piezometric pressure measurement in the individual depths of the drained profile can be compared with the results of theoretical models. The method is not dependent on the size and quality of the contact area of the sensor with the porous environment soil as it is the case with a whole number of other moisture apparatuses. For all the monitoring locations the correction From the point of view of water streaming in the drained soil profile the macro-voids pedohydatodes , soil permeability and drainage parameters above all the location depth and the parallel drains range are fundamentally important.
The saturated zone thickness fluctuates due to the occurrence of precipitation and of soil profile drainage. In spite of its upper level being approximately identical with the underground water level, it is necessary to mention that the measured underground water level may be distorted as the probe records the pressure from any depth and place on the periphery of the bore perforated pipe. The saturated zone is usually not hundred percent saturated, there always remains a certain aeration share that can be ascribed to the debit of the soil particles forces and also to hysteresis.
However, oxygen may be gradually extracted by soil organisms. For these reasons the piezometers suitable for the study of water streaming conditions in a porous environment are those that are sensible tools for recording pressures above all in a non-homogenous layered environment. The choice of the relatively equal pairs of dry and wet years is based on the identity of the annual precipitation totals. It is a criterion that is acceptable from the hydrological point of view.
However, if a markedly different precipitation development occurs in the chosen years in temporal distribution as well as in intensity , then the chosen pairs may be less homogenous. Based on the evaluation of the piezometric system in the dry and the wet period of a wet and a dry year, the soil and underlying layers participating in the creation of drainage runoff were defined.
The lowest values of soil moisture content were measured during the extreme drought in the spring of the year The rate of decrease of soil moisture drops with increasing depth. Water retardation used in the drainage system retains soil moisture in the drained soil profile, which means that the critical drought period is shortened.
The authors would like to express their thanks to Mr. Hospodka for his carefully and systematically performed measurements in the experimental catchment, and to Mr. Soukup, M. Methodology, 24, 86 pp. Ferrero, L. Lisa, S. Parena, L. Conventional tillage T and controlled grass cover GC of the inter-rows were compared in two hydraulically isolated plots 0.
Moreover, in the top 30 cm of the soil, water-stable aggregates, bulk density, water content at saturation, saturated hydraulic conductivity SHC and soil temperature at two depths were monitored. On average, observed topsoil loss was kg ha-1 per year from the T plot and kg ha-1 from the GC plot. Nitrogen loss was 1. Normal rainfall events were analysed separately from rainstorms.
Soil loss was considerably greater during rainstorms. Nutrient losses followed the same pattern with rather low absolute amounts. The GC management considerably increased the aggregate stability, while SHC was significantly decreased compared to the T plot management. Shoot 'em up. RPG akcji. Projektowanie i ilustrowanie. Lokalny tryb wieloosobowy.
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