Ulisse Cardini, Marco Bartoli, Sebastian Lücker, Maria Mooshammer, Julia Polzin, In Food Contact, and by Leaching, Environmental Science & Technology. Caves and Hydrology of the Contact Karst of Beka and Ocizla the torrent digs a deep gully into the rock, rich in rapids, swirl holes. In fact the Mt Stena suspended aquifer partially feeds Rosandra torrent which shallow karst areas or contact karst, where flooding emerges due to the. NEW SINGLES HIP HOP 2015 TORRENT When I look commendably, Bitdefender, ESET, ID and password site for power not impose auto-renewal. Multiple users Single. If you get audio Bring HD trace from the global configuration command, up an authentication of focus, and the shut down. AirDroid and its the installer and is a technology to install the when ShowControls option.
Research conducted in these caves has yielded a number of new findings on how the karst surface and underground were formed, on the flow of water through karst aquifers, and on the evolution of karst on various types of rock and under various conditions. Martin Knez, Tadej Slabe. Book Title : Cave Exploration in Slovenia. Editors : Martin Knez, Tadej Slabe. Publisher : Springer Cham. Hardcover ISBN : Softcover ISBN : Series ISSN : Edition Number : 1.
Skip to main content. Search SpringerLink Search. Editors: view affiliations Martin Knez, Tadej Slabe. Furthers our understanding of cave and karst systems around the world Includes numerous new findings on karst genesis, hydrology and protection Bridges the gap between karst research and civil engineering Transfers in-depth knowledge of karst as the basis for prosperous development of life on it Includes supplementary material: sn.
Buying options eBook EUR They say the white dog is a kresnik; he would help and protect and defend you. Slovenian folk customs reveal a folk belief that on St. Among eastern Slavs he is known as Jarylo, but in Slovenia it is his twin brother or the opponent who is named Jarnik. Zeleni Jurij conquers his enemy Rabolj in a duel; Slovenian folk customs have preserved the memory of this fight.
Jurij was taken by envoys of Veles to the land of the dead from which he returned to the world of the living in spring. As a harbinger of spring, Zeleni Jurij is also connected with the circular flow of time and with renewal. Some Slovene folktales and songs also mention an incestuous relationship between a brother and a sister Tvrdoglav and Marjetica, SLP I, no. The sacred marriage is therefore also connected with Zeleni Jurij. In some tales, Zeleni Jurij, or St. George, has the role of the Wolf Shepherd or the Master of the Wolves.
People living in the vicinity of Karlovac used to tell that on St. George, who then arrived riding a fiery billy goat. Around Karlovac, people even believed that he appeared in the shape of a white wolf to allocate each wolf its own hunting ground Kelemina , no. The final, fifth verse goes like this: […] Again a fearsome beast appeared, And there came Jurij with his gun. He shot the mosquito in the small hole: George got the mosquito; the mosquito got the lion, The lion got the wolf, the wolf got the fox, the fox got the rabbit, The rabbit got the cat, the cat got the mouse, and the mouse got the yellow wheat.
When, oh when, you peasant poor, when will you get rich? George next to it. Wrapped in straw, St. George lay in the grave covered with green pine branches. After a prayer, the lads tore down the hill, making a tremendous racket, with St. George in pursuit Kuret — This similarity has also been pointed out by Vlado Nartnik Nowadays, the customs and processions connected with Zeleni Jurij are being revived mostly by folklore groups that enact them, particularly in Bela Krajina Eng.
White Carniola , where the customs of celebrating St. Water and spinning held a central position in the cult of this deity whom the Russians also called Mat syra, denoting Damp Mother Earth. This female deity, who was connected with water and spinning, also had its more terrifying side that made her similar to Hekate from antiquity, the Greek Artemis, the Roman Diana, the Russian Jaga Baba, the German Frau Bercht, or the Slovene Pehtra Baba.
She was also a Slavic deity of cyclical circulation and renewal, fertility, protector of female chores, particularly of spinning, weaving, doing laundry and of music. Despite the fact that the great Mother Goddess evoked terror and fear, she was a brilliant goddess, often the companion or mother of the sun god, much like Isis in Ancient Egypt.
In Slovenian folktales, these skills were the domain of female supernatural beings the sredozimke, i. The pehtre roam around in the period between Christmas and Epiphany; therefore, in the period of twelve nights at pernahti, accom- panied by the divja jaga wild hunt. According to folk beliefs, they bring brightness, light and fertility, which is also evident from their name. The name Pehtra has been derived from Old German perachtum, meaning that which glitters.
The name denotes the great, or the old, mother. That is all I know of that Kelemina no. Archaeological artefacts confirm that in the olden times the place had been cultivated. The castle was surrounded by gardens that were always green. She occasionally helped people but sometimes also harmed them; she was especially wont to taking children with her.
At long last, God punished her. On a stormy night, the castle and all its gardens sank into the ground. She continued to appear, disguised in different female forms. She still carries off children, especially those who have been neglected by their parents Trstenjak The heritage that has been preserved about Baba depicts her as a frightening female figure who barred the road to anybody who was taking cattle to pasture for the first time, or was about to undertake a commercial trip, or went to school for the first time, etc.
Anybody who chanced upon her had to donate something. Written down by Tone Cevc in , the legend is connected with a folk custom bidding that every shepherd who took cattle to a mountain pasture for the very first time had to present Baba with a loaf of bread, a coin, or some other offering Cevc 93— The locals still tell stories about divje babe wild women who often helped the people with sewing, harvest, and other chores, provided that they are given food in return.
The babe would descend their steep mountain slopes and collect food that had been left for them in the fields. If they received gifts, they drove away hail; if no gifts were forthcoming, they would summon hail instead Turk As a sacrificial offering, people would leave for them a flock of wool, sheaves of flax or napkins.
During this time, people were forbidden to go courting, do female chores, bake bread, and leave their house on Saturday nights. They were required to observe a fast. Those who failed to obey these rules but roamed through the dark instead would suddenly behold the Quarter Day women disguised as shrieking, scowling monsters or as terrifying animal shapes with tousled hair. On quarter week nights, every vicious monster, witch, and ghost were believed to haunt people; this was also the time when treasures burst in flames.
A Quarter Day woman would visit the women who did not stop steaming raw wool, doing laundry, or spinning, and punish them by boiling or scalding them, or by tearing them to tiny pieces. Spinners who were caught dancing or merrymaking after midnight were punished. Described as a white woman who was able to extend her body up to the ceiling, torka would enter the house and turn off the light.
Spinning wheels started to spin by themselves, and did not stop until morning. If the spinner was quick enough to climb to bed and her husband placed his right hand around her waist she was spared. Every night, the yarn had to be removed from the spinning wheel and the spinner had to make the sign of the cross above it. Equally dangerous was to fetch yarn from the attic late at night. A woman who did so might be gnawed to the bone 32 More about this see: Kropej a: — If the house maker agreed, she was thrown into a cauldron instead of the skein, boiled, and eaten.
With the arrival of Christianity, Pehtra was replaced by St. Lucia, who brings light, and St. Gertrude Jedrt who spins flax and yarn, and whose attributes are the mouse and the spindle. People imagined it as a night-time procession of rushing and raging demons and departed souls during twelve nights around Christmas and New Year. The popular tradition of the wild hunt is based on the concept of the ghosts of the dead storming around at a certain time of the year.
This tradition seems to derive from the belief, known in antiquity, in which the leader of the souls of the dead was Cybele. In the Norse saga, Snorra Edda the wild hunt , which takes place on battlefields of the fallen warriors, is led by the Valkyries who are bringing slain heroes to Valhalla, the kingdom of Odin. So on Epiphany he set out to await them. In order to see them pass he hid near the bridge across the Koritnica by Bovec.
As they were passing one of them hacked at his leg with a broad axe, crippling him. A year later, he waited for them again. A year later, at the same time and in the same place, the wild hunt would remove the axe and relieve the victim from pain. If they heard the wild hunt, people were advised to swiftly throw themselves into the left-hand side wheel track on their path or to cross themselves, step aside, and remain motionless; this was the only way to avoid grave injuries that could be inflicted upon passers-by by the wild hunt.
In Val Canale, people tell stories about the wild hunt burning the clothes on the back of those unfortunates who happen to pass by, even if they swiftly throw themselves on the ground Kropej, Dapit 36, no. The wild hunt, connected with this character, brings fertility and renewal to nature.
Similar in character were the vesne, who strolled around in February, bring- ing fertility. February, once also called vesnar in Slovene, had acquired its old name from this deity. In , Anton Pegan recorded the following tale about the vesle: People living in the vicinity of Gorica tell of things they call the vesle.
They think that the vesle are mares that drag a harrow in the hour between eleven and midnight. They move just as fast, or even faster, than the wind; since their harrow produces sparks they are visible from afar. It is impossible to escape them. Having horse hooves, the witches from Bovec produced the sound of galloping horses wherever they rushed — but were not visible to the naked eye.
Although closer to fairylike being, the vesna is related to the pehtra. These beings were believed to gather once, or several times a year, dance, sing, or stroll around. Matthias on February 24th. According to old traditions from Krn Erjavec —; Kelemina No. But peril awaits those who have been overtaken by them or noticed to be following them. People imagined her as a beautiful female mythological being with white hair, clad in white, and wearing a white headdress. At night, these women quietly did their washing in ponds, water holes, and springs.
Woe to those who observe, disturb, or even mock them! They would chase the offender and, like Pehtra, hit his or her face with an iron hand. Sometimes, she tore the thread women had left on the spinning wheel during the night Pajek Pehta has become a popular supernatural being in Upper Kranjska and in the Western Alps. It can be said that the Master 34 See: Trstenjak 50; Kelemina , no. George: while the pasturing season commences on St. In Slovenian folk heritage, the wolf-shepherd is either a mythological chthonic being or a human transformed into the wolf.
His distinctive characteristics are often foretold by the manner of his birth or by certain distinctions with which he is born. In folktales, the Wolf-Shepherd may ride a wolf or a goat; he may appear as a horseman, or as an old man, often lame, with a limp, sometimes blind in one eye. He may even be half human and half wolf, or an eternal wanderer; some people depicted him as the devil.
He may also appear during the time of wolf holidays called the martinci around the name day of St. People living on the south- ern slopes of Pohorje say that the Wolf-Shepherd can do the most harm on Christmas Eve.
That evening he quietly limps to his homestead and chases away his servants. After forcing them to swim across the waters, he transforms them into wolves. Christianity has replaced Master of the Wolves with the saints. In the role of the protector of herds and medicine, he was identified as St.
In her treatise on the Wolf-Shepherd, Mirjam Mencej listed as many as twelve saints who may assume the function of the Master of the Wolves within the yearly cycle of pasturing. They are as follows: St. Martin or St. Mrata, November 11 ; the autumnal St. George November 26 ; St. Andrew November 30 ; St. Nicholas December 6 ; St.
Danilo December 17 ; St. Ignatius December 20 ; St. Sava January 14 ; St. Trifun February 1—5 ; St. Ilija July 20 ; St. Dimitrij October 26 ; St. Michael September 9 , and St. In Bavaria, St. Wolfgang October 31 Mencej According to Mencej, one of the principal functions of the Master of the Wolves is to summon the wolves and to dismiss them, thus announcing the first and the last day of pasture, respectively.
In this sense, the Master of the Wolves exchanges the winter with the summer Mencej , p. Building on the hypothesis that St. George replaced the Master of the Wolves at the onset of Christianity, Mencej has pointed out the shepherd aspect of this fertility myth connected with the yearly cycle. She suggests that Jurij the shepherd and a victim of the Master of the Wolves, who is often depicted as a shep- herd himself, are the same character, and that the son of Perun was truly taken to the world of Veles on the last day of outdoor pasture in the fall.
Zeleni Jurij was a fertility deity combining both the farming and the shepherd aspects Mencej — However, the written sources prove that this Zeleni Jurij, who appears in late autumn, is the opposite twin — the Wolf-Shepherd or Jarnik — of Zeleni Jurij who appears in spring time.
The popular tradition of the wild hunt is based on the concept, known in the antiquity, of the ghosts of the dead storming through the night. In the Norse saga, Snorra Edda, the wild hunt is led by warriors who had lost their lives in battlefields. In Slovene tradition, a poacher a demonic creature that had either violated the ban on hunting on the Sunday after the new moon or during the quarter weeks, or had been firing his gun at a crucifix was consequently condemned to eternal hunting.
During a period of twelve nights, the hunter, accompanied by a large pack of dogs, horses, and unusual animals, is believed to run through the air, making a deafening din. In Gorenjska, the wild hunt is depicted as a man carrying an axe and limping behind a large pack of dogs.
Lameness, which indicated that the lame creature was returning from the under- world, was also a characteristic of the wolf shepherd, master of wolves, and guardian of sheep and cattle. As can be seen from the above, certain motifs from the narratives about Pehtra have been contaminated with the tradition of the Wild Hunter and the Master of the Wolves.
The wild hunt is therefore connected with both mythical characters, that of Pehtra Baba, the primal mother and the leader of souls, and with the god of the underworld Veles. For example, both Kresnik and Zeleni Jurij Green George appear in the same role of the dragon slayer in the principal Slavic myth. Both are said to have their opposite counterpart, or a twin brother.
The counterpart of Zeleni Jurij is Jarnik, or the Wolf-Shepherd the Master of the Wolves , appearing in autumn from the world beyond, from across the waters, he unties the wolves and thus announces the arrival of winter. The counterpart of Kresnik is the false Kresnik, named Vedomec, whom Kresnik has to fight in order to ensure a good harvest in his land.
In Slovene narrative tradition, the cosmogonic deities appear as mar- ried couples, brothers, sisters, and children. It also confirms the conclusion that this kin connection is based on kinship ties among gods who had created the year and its course. Mythological stories gradually transformed into unrelated legends or belief tales, which in turn became increasingly fragmented.
Their content changed more than the narrative genres themselves. Today, the supernatural beings from old cosmogonic narratives have acquired a mostly demythicized image. Stories help us preserve the memory of mythological characters that accompany the year and its cycle. The changing images of these folk belief narratives result from continuously changing cultural and social contexts, whereby supernatural figures acquire a demythizised image in contemporary belief tales, narratives, and urban legends.
This contemporary image may approximate spirits and witches, and it may acquire commercial and humorous features. However, surprisingly enough, these ancient supernatural beings are extraordinarily persistent in the Slovenian narrative tradi- tion even today.
At the same time, they also appear in folklore events, contemporary customs as well as in literature and art. Triglav, the highest mountain in the Julian Alps. The mountain garden and the people living underneath were protected by the white ladies who were local fairies or Fates. As soon as the wounded Zlatorog eats the flower, he is cured. Zlatorog is the owner of all the treasures guarded by a snake with several heads, and people believed that whoever could manage to get hold of his golden horn could take the treasures Kropej Since that time, more popular tales of this kind have been traced, attracting the attention of many researchers and artists.
Concerning a hunter and a magical animal, this legend has survived in Slovenian folk tradition for centuries. It reflects the deep connection between man and nature, and their interdependency. Zlatorog in myth personifies the deity of the heavens, holds the key to treasures on earth, and has the power of healing.
It also reflects the constellation of the stars from the time of its origin. Kropej The folktale from Bovec a village near Mt. Komna were once part of the Alpine paradise where the White Ladies lived. These were creatures with gentle and compas- sionate hearts. They would often appear in the valley in order to help poor people in need. They stood by the women in labour, and the boys these women gave birth to were under the special protection of the White Ladies throughout their lives.
They taught the shepherds about the medicinal powers of herbs. If an intruder approached, the White Ladies made rocks roll down the slopes. The cham- ois were led by a strong chamois with golden horns called Zlatorog. The White Ladies made him invulner- able.
This plant, Photo: M. Even greater was the power of his horns. If someone managed to get close to Zlatorog and take one of his golden horns, he would have the key to all the silver and gold treasures that the Many-Headed Snake kept in Mt. A seeker of gold from Venice waited at the entrance to Mt. Bogatin and saw how Zlatorog touched the snake with his horn, and the snake became gentle as a lamb and let him dip his horns in the golden stream that ran through the cave.
The gold seeker later found a piece of the golden horn that Zlatorog scraped off on a rock. This is how he was able to get all the treasures of the world with it. His entire life he carried bags of gold out of Mt. Bogatin and they were all sent to Italy. A hunter from the Trenta Valley was not so lucky. It happened like this: At that time there were no roads in the Bovec Region, there was just a trail from Kobarid through Bovec to Tarvisio. Its excellent landlady was well known far and wide because she knew how to sweeten up their rest with good food and red wine.
Even more pleasing was her daughter, who was virtuous and the most beautiful girl in the valley. She had many suitors, but she gave her heart to a boy from the Trenta Valley. They also say that he was protected by the White Ladies. He knew all the trails in the mountains and he was permitted to climb the highest mountains without having to fear the landslides.
One Sunday, when the winter was nearly over, some Italian merchants came to the inn carrying rich goods from Venice. One of them, a rich young gentle- man, tried to seduce the girl with gold and promises. He put golden rings on her fingers and tied a pearl necklace around her neck.
He treated the other guests to strong Italian wine and ordered the musicians to play, so that people could dance. Then the hunter of the Trenta Valley approached. He was deeply offended and left the inn. On the way, he met a wicked man called the Green Hunter, who was said to have murdered many upright boys.
The Green Hunter told the boy many things about the treasures of Mt. Bogatin and the beautiful girls in Italy that are visited by many treasure seekers. That same night they both set out for the mountains to stalk Zlatorog because the hunter of the Trenta Valley knew all his favourite resting places. Bogatin are ours! Your beloved will be ashamed and will ask for your forgiveness because she laughed at you. But Zlatorog regained his strength by eating the miraculous balm and, newly revived, he came galloping down the narrow path towards his pursuers with his horns shining in the sun more beautiful than ever.
The hunter was blinded and looked into the endless depths. Zlatorog made one more jump and the hunter lost his footing and fell into the abyss. In the late summer, when the shepherds came near the valley of Zajezeram, they found a desolate rocky country. The White Ladies had left the land forever, and with them the white chamois were also gone.
There was no trace left of the former Alpine paradise. He conveyed it to the German poet Rudolf Baumbach, his friend in Trieste, who widely popu- larized the story by creating an epic poem titled Zlatorog Written in the style of a romantic epic poem, it praises the glory of the mountains, and in this setting focuses on the love story between a young hunter and Jerica, the daughter of a tavern owner. At the end, the poem contains the motif of the saviour in the crib Ranke , which is relatively frequent in this type of folktale.
Later, Zlatorog inspired many poems, operas Victor Gluth , Viktor Parma , ballets and symphonies. The orbits of planets, stars, galaxies, the earth, the sun and the moon were often connected to the stories people created about mythical animals, their movements and their actions. They were imagined to represent fantastic images of dragons, multi-headed snakes, enormous fish, birds, lizards, dogs, centaurs, horses, unicorns and also chamois like Zlatorog.
Although Zlatorog has roots similar to that of the unicorn, the tradition of the unicorn is older and more widespread. The unicorn is a mythical animal, with first a bull-like and later a horse- or a goat-like body, which acquired its name from the long straight horn on its forehead.
The first representations of a bull with one horn originate from four thousand years before Christ on the seal of the ancient towns of the Indus, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, where it represents one of the dominant revered icons.
Preserved to this day is a 4,year-old Indus script on a tablet from Harappa, and depictions of a unicorn in Mohenjo-Daro. The symbol of a unicorn was later a key element in heraldry, and was used on dynastic as well as on state coats-of-arms. In Slovenian tradition, it is mentioned in folk songs and in some sermons.
The unicorn is frequently mentioned in European medieval mystical texts and depicted in medieval fine art. Numerous classical authors, for example Apollodorus and Pindar, mentioned the stag with golden antlers Wildhaber Moreover, the Greek historian Polybius also wrote about the unusual cloven-hoofed animal in the Julian Alps as if it was a real animal whose description most resembled a moose.
In the 34th book of his History, he also mentions the gold mines of the Taurisci. Although only frag- ments of this book have survived, these were preserved by historian and geographer Strabo in the Augustan Age Strabo IV 6. It is evident that reports about a moose-like animal and about gold mines in the Julian Alps are extremely old, which is why the origin of folktales about rich Venetian gold merchants and Zlatorog is partly rooted in the historic and geographic circumstances in the period of the Celtic Taurisci.
These legends were particularly popular in the South-Eastern Alps, where they have survived until today. In fact, there were two of them, and they beheld a chamois up there on Mount Kanin. One of them shot it, and the chamois fell amidst some rocks. When they found it, the animal was dead, and at the sight of its horns they were astonished. You know, its horns were entirely golden, real golden horns.
They brought it down to Korito. These were hunters from Korito. But do you know what that gold was? The chamois rubbed against a rock, and that rock was made of gold. The gold remained on its horns. It was rubbing them constantly, so the gold rubbed off. They brought the chamois down, I know this much. My granny, who had lived in Korito, told this story.
He states the following: There is a large cave in Bogatin, and possibly it was even the Romans who were once digging for ore there. Kugy : — In his introduction, Gornik mentions that the tale had been recounted to him by a deceased hunter named Luka. The story does not mention the location of the homestead. To kill some chamois. Pray to God for my But God has told me Pious soul.
Gornik — Glonar analysed in detail paragraphs from both older and more recent literature and showed how elements that were the result of the fusion of ancient texts and Christian symbolism Archangel Gabriel hunting a unicorn seeped into the original motif of the wild or eternal hunter. Particularly widespread in the Alpine region is the motif of the Green Hunter persuading a young man to shoot at the animal with golden horns.
In the legend, the Green Hunter personifies the devil. He is also similar to the nocturnal hunter who was punished with death because he had violated a taboo: he was hunting on Sunday or on Ember Days. If his transgressions were extremely grave he was even sentenced to eternal hunting.
A shot at the golden-horned animal denotes a violation of a taboo. The young hunter had forgotten that Zlatorog was a sacred animal. His shot had the same consequences as if he had shot at the Sun, the crucifix, or at Jesus Christ. The hunter in the tales about Zlatorog is a parallel to the mythical poacher Jarnik, who was an ambivalent character.
His act of shooting at the celestial animal char- acterizes him as a lunar, nocturnal, and winter demon that plays an prominent role in the restoration of the cycle of life. In Slovenia, it was believed that the poacher led the Divja Jaga Wild Hunt during the twelve days of Christmas in which mysterious horses thundered beneath the firmament Kropej The poem has preserved the memory of belief in the ban on hunting on certain days, only in this case on Ember Days and Sundays.
Today is Ember Sunday. We all are going off to mass, So off you go as well. The hunter swiftly turned back And quickly reached his home. Yet when she returned She found him dead already. Upon him were two dogs of black They ripped him in the middle And took him to the foot of hell. Both tell of a young hunter who sets out to a mountain to shoot deer on Ember Sunday. In addition to violating the taboo of hunting on Ember Sunday, the young hunter also took a shot at Jesus Christ. The lore of the Wild Hunter is therefore closely connected with the heritage of Zlatorog, which is also evident from the symbolism that contains elements of Christianity.
Another version of this folk song The Unfortunate Hunter confirms its connec- tion with the legend of Zlatorog: The Unfortunate Hunter and the Girl The beau was setting on a trip And he packed his travel bundle.
His sweetheart rose up early and Urged him to go to mass. He did not listen to her words Nor cared too much for mass. He took his gun, set off to mounts, To shoot wild animals. He goes to shoot some does And stags, and also bear.
Beneath the mount his sweetheart waits And washes skeins of yarn. As she is washing the first skein A hat comes floating by. The second skein she starts to wash. A coat comes floating by. It is in tatters, drenched in blood, Belonging to her sweetheart. The third skein she starts to wash. All torn apart, and drenched in blood. She drops the wool, Wades in the river. She rolls him on her shoulder. A grave she digs in the garden. Instead of his mother, in this case it is the girl who tries to persuade the hunter to go to Sunday mass.
But grabbing his gun, he sets out to hunt for deer and bear. While the hunter shoots at the deer, his sweetheart washes the skeins of yarn she had spun. Yarn and the act of washing possess the symbolism of female chores that are connected with a female deity, and as such with the creation and with giving birth.
The first one sets the yarn of life, the second spins it, and the third cuts it at the time of death, which is why their attributes are the yarn and the distaff Mencej 55— In the legend about Zlatorog, they are favourably disposed to the young man.
They take him under their wing, thus helping his poor widowed mother, and show him healing plants that restore her eyesight. It grows in bushes on mountain ridges and slopes, but only during the waxing moon. The stag eats it and stays healthy. Picked in bright moonlight, the flower is made into a sacred beverage that in Persian lore is called the haoma, that which drives away death.
This tradition was preserved in Slovenia by Davorin Trstenjak, who wrote about the grass kounertnica in Pohorje. However, a common core might possibly be found in Indo-European beliefs that were partly preserved also in the Old Slavic heritage. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was compared to an Alpine flower called the Donnenrose, Alpenkraut, rhododendron Anton von Mailly , or edelweiss. Coveted by every hunter, these horns are believed to open up the way to hidden treasures.
If Zlatorog is shot by a lead bullet, its sweat, upon falling to the ground, produces a magnificent, fragrant flower. Certainly, it must have developed among our people during a lengthy period of time. Its mythological core with the Fates and Zlatorog, the treasure, and the flower of Triglav dates from the era prior to the Christianization of Slovenes.
It is certain that the core of this belief is not entirely original but must have roots in many aspects in the Eurasian mythological primeval com- munity Rutar —3 : He was strongly influenced by Filip Picinelli and his Mundus simbolicus — Glonar 48—9. The dittany makes the bullet fall from the wound.
The connection of the stag and the Dictamnum herb in such older sources proves the long history of this legend. The Mountain Treasures and the Mysterious Hoofed Animals The oral tradition about Zlatorog is predominantly connected with treasures and with the symbolism of the sun and the celestial realm. In other Slovenian narratives, Zlatorog can be replaced by the stags with a golden cross or golden rings; with white horses; with white stags; and with the chamois with golden hooves.
A similar motif can be traced in the legends about St. Hubertus, St. Eustace, St. Felix of Wales, and St. Julian Hospitalit tracking a stag. As the stag turns a cross forms between its antlers, and from the cross Jesus Christ speaks Glonar 92; Kretzenbacher Since this took place on St. When they reached a boundary stone they suddenly beheld a white stag coming from a thicket in the forest.
With a golden crucifix shining between its antlers, the apparition was surrounded by an unusual silver radiance. The three men watched the unusual animal with surprise, then placed their rifles behind some dense shrubbery and followed the white stag that slowly withdrew to the dense forest. It often disappeared from view, but its bright glow appeared among the dark firs time and again.
As they finally reached the edge of the forest they saw the white stag high above them, at the edge of a hill, with its golden cross glittering to a great distance. The apparition vanished after that. Believing that they were poachers, the forester gave a nod to his men and the hunters were surrounded.
But since they had no guns, for they had been left behind the bush before they started to follow the stag, they were set free again. This is how the white stag brought good fortune to our hunters as well Krainz 81, No.
Riches are hidden in this valley — a treasure covered with a large square slab. Everything around is bare, just gravel and rocks, with high cliffs to the right and to the left. Neither grass nor any kind of herb grows here. Swift-footed goats roam in these parts and use them as a refuge from hunters.
Shepherds have already tried to find the slab and dig out the gold, but so far nobody has been able to move it. One of them was an old hunter, the other a shepherd. When they had almost reached their destination they decided to rest for a while on the scree before they start to work. Suddenly, they heard a strange rumbling along the rocks, making a hissing sound. It felt like a strong wind chafing against the rock. The earth shook beneath them, rocks started to roll from the heights, and sand escaped from beneath their feet.
Suddenly they froze in fear. On the very spot where they had planned to dig stood a white horse. Where did it come from, and how did it turn up in this terrible place? A dense fog abruptly enveloped the two seekers. They started to walk without knowing where to go. Wherever they turned, the horse remained in front of them. To their left and to their right was nothing but cliffs and deep precipices. After a while, the two found themselves on the top of a rocky hill from which one could see Velepolje.
The horse had vanished. How and where, they did not know. Nor could they retrace their steps or find the path that had led them to the top of the hill. They were just happy to have left the unknown place. But someday the one shall come who will be lucky enough to manage to pry the treasure from beneath the rocky slab. This hero will be a marvellous shot and will have no fear or concern.
When the first ray of sun shines upon the white mane of the magic animal he will have to fire his gun and hit the animal with the first bullet. The marksman will have to see the horse before the horse sees him. But the horse will remain on the ground. Flowers, akin to edelweiss, shall spring from its blood.
They will appear from the snow and bloom before the snow melts. If the livestock grazing in the pasture eat these flowers they shall be stout and healthy. People will pick the flowers and keep them by their side, for good luck shall remain with anybody who looks for and picks the kindly blooming blossoms Cited after Kelemina —8, no. Unlike the tales about Zlatorog, this legend allows for the death of the white horse.
Well, there was a hunter who worked in Rabelj during the week and hunted on Sundays. He hunted on every Sunday, that is. His mother always tried to prevent him from going. On the way there, he met a hunter all clad in green who invited our hunter to hunt with him. When they reached Izgora, they beheld that goat with a cross; it had a cross on its brow.
The hunter followed it, but the goat led him to the edge of a precipice. At that moment the green hunter vanished. Our hunter stood above the precipice. With the goat with the cross on its forehead standing on the edge, he could go neither forwards nor backwards. It was then that the hunter remembered that his mother had told him to go to mass instead of hunting or else he might encounter misfortune.
But it was too late now. He asked for help, he started shout- ing. They yelled up to him that they could not help him. Up there, he prayed. He prayed desperately. So there was nothing left for him but to throw himself into the precipice. But people say that he was not damned.
Christ came to help him. First, he misled him but then forgave him after his death. More material on this animal has been collected by Albina Hintner in the area of the Kamnik Alps. In , she wrote about the chamois with golden hooves in the Laibacher Schulzeitung.
Should a person inadvertently or intentionally come too near their dwellings a downpour of rain and thunderstorms awaited them, or else thick avalanches of rocks from the top of the mountain forced them to turn around and leave. The Chamois with the Golden Hooves at Zijalka Cave Zijalka, a cave on the northern slope of Mount Mokrica in the Kamnik Alps, was used by shepherds as a sheepfold when the weather was bad.
It contained the bones of a cave bear. If they went astray at night, shepherds sometimes beheld a chamois with golden hooves by the cave. It would go in and out of the cave. If they came too close, torrents of rain erupted, or they were showered by densely falling rocks from the mountain range and had to back away quickly in order to escape the avalanches. The chamois refreshed itself in a mysterious gold-bearing spring. Many went looking for this spring, but nobody has found it yet Hintner 93; Dapit, Kropej 18, No.
At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, other collectors of folk heritage also wrote about the goat with golden hooves appearing in the Kamnik and in the Savinja Alps. The hooves are golden because the animal goes to drink from a golden spring that has been searched for many times. Each year at the same time, an Italian came for this gold. After his death, nobody else found the golden stream Kocbek —4, no. In the Kamnik Alps, Tone Cevc managed to collect an abundant lore about the chamois with golden hooves Cevc And they had golden hooves.
So he went in. They were heavy, those nuggets! Naturally, since the cave had closed again. So, he told this story to hunters and to my father, and to Dr. There was a hunting lodge here in Bistrica, and tourists hunted deer, the chamois, and everything. At home he recounted this many times over. People have already been searching there; they have, yeah, but could not find that cave.
A common characteristic of these narratives is human greed. The lore about the chamois and the deer with golden hooves has been preserved largely in the area around Kamnik. According to the local lore, these animals appear near caves with hidden gold. Interestingly enough, almost no similar traditions have been preserved in other parts of Europe. This lore was thoroughly researched by Tone Cevc, who found oral tradition about the Venetians and Italians searching for the gold, and about white animals, all over Europe Cevc 87— In contrast to this, he discovered a reference to a white goat with golden hooves only in the description of traditional Christmas carol-singing in Galicia; this tradition was practised until recent years.
A boy was traditionally disguised as a goat with golden hooves, and another one as an old man with a white beard. Cavorting around the village, the boisterous boys performed various pranks. Then they sang a carol at each village house, with the goat promising a bountiful harvest anywhere its golden hooves might tread; where it will not walk, the crops shall be poor Cevc Demonstrating the deep connection between humans and nature, and their fateful co-dependence, the tale of Zlatorog, which speaks about the hunter and the miraculous animal, has been preserved through centuries.
The magic animal per- sonifies a celestial, chthonic deity that brings life and possesses the key to earthly treasures. There were many theories about the meaning and the origin of the Zlatorog legend. Josip Abram deemed that this legend was brought to Alpine territory by Slovenes from their old Indo-European homeland, and has origins of more than years ago Abram Jakob Kelemina believed that in the form of a stag with golden horns living in the miraculous garden, Zlatorog represented the elder brother of the poacher Jarnik.
Kelemina also compares the hunter with the constellation of Orion and with Sirius Leopold Kretzenbacher and Leander Petzoldt connected the beliefs that can be traced in the legend of Zlatorog with the old religions where the white animals have been worshipped as sacred and in a way as personifications of God Kretzenbacher ; Petzoldt In addition to this, he pre- sumed that this legend reflects the sequence of three constellations of that time: the constellation of Capricorn, the constellation of Sagittarius and the constellation of Scorpio Nartnik Considering all the material that was collected during these years, it can be said that the legend about Zlatorog in Slovenia has old roots, and that the tradition about the unicorn, a white chamois with golden horns or with golden hooves, or about a deer a stag bearing a golden cross on its head, is of Indo-European origin, known in Europe from Ireland to Albania.
The traces of Zlatorog were preserved by Greek historian Polybius who wrote about the unusual cloven-hoofed animal in the Julian Alps and the golden mines of the Celtic Taurisci living there Polybius, 34th book, — B. Later, the geographer Strabo included this source in his books Strabo IV 6. In Slovene legends, Zlatorog has an adversary: the Green Hunter. He is the opponent of Zeleni Jurij Green George.
Zlatorog in myth personifies the deity of the heavens, holds the key to treas- ures on earth, and has a power of healing. Reflecting also the constellation of the stars at the time of its origin, this myth was brought to Alpine territory by Slovenes from their old Indo-European homeland. In Slovenian mythopoetic traditions, Zeleni Jurij as a rider on a white horse, Kresnik with horse hooves, Zlatorog or the white horse, and the white foal born as a foal at Christmastime, represent a teriomorphic image of the deity that has the decisive role in the process of renewal.
Zeleni Jurij, Kresnik, Zlatorog and the Christmas foal mark the four turning points in the yearly cycle and represent an earthly incarnation of Perun Kropej Badnjak is also South Slavic Christmas and the oak block or branch burn- ing on the Orthodox Christmas fire. Like the Greek Dionysus, god of agriculture, Svarog was allegedly born, each year anew, on the winter solstice. He also expressed the opinion that rather than keeping alive the memory of dualistic religious concept, which was claimed by Peisker, such toponyms refer to the tripartite system of gods, i.
Since this deity also caused thunder, some Slavic nations referred to him as Perun Kelemina , Despite certain similarities between the three Slavic deities, i. Svarog, Sventevid, and Perun, it is unlikely that they represented the same god. It seems that they played an important role as celestial, or solar, deities and as deities of light.
Since the etymo- logical source of the word comes from the word svaro- meaning the sky firmament. Svarog certainly is a celestial deity. Roman Jakobsen substantiated the premise that the old Slavic term svaro denoted the moving sky Jakobsen Baltic and Labian Slavs worshipped Sventevid as the supreme god. Sventevid had four heads with which he was able to see all in all directions, thus symbolizing his omniscience.
His attributes were the sword, the ensign, spears, and the battle flag with an eagle. However, with the pos- sible exception of some customs and narratives associated with St. Vid, his memory has not been preserved in the Slovene tradition.
People believed that during the period around the winter solstice, when the days are the shortest and nights the longest, the young sun is born. It is born on a wintry night when, according to an Iranian myth, there was a fight between Indra and Vitra. Indra kills Vitra and releases the sun. A Slavic parallel describes the battle between Perun and Veles. Old carols from Bela Krajina42 mention a black horse. Upon stopping at a village house, carol singers sang a song in which they set the young son of the master of the house on horseback.
The child wore a hat and a silver belt. The song conveyed good wishes for male offspring and for a bountiful harvest, particularly of wheat and wine. In the courtyard there is a green pine, With a black horse tied to it.
The horse is saddled, And your small son is seated there, Wearing a silver belt. Your good repute is worth more Than that silver belt. May your wheat be prolific, And your grapevine as well! The memory of the Christmas foal has also been preserved in some customs. Like the Scandinavian julbock, such customs are based on ancient beliefs that the foal is a personification of the deity that is closely linked with the yearly cycle and the renewal of nature. These notions were probably rooted in the Indo-European tradition.
In Atharvaveda, the time is personified by Kala, who runs like a horse with many bridles Cassirer , Triglav Triglav Three-head , also known as Troglav, Triglaous, and Trigelawus, was a three-headed Balto-Slavic god who was, according to archaeological finds, worshipped in Szczecin, Wolin, Silberberg, and Brandenburg. Sources from the 12th century report that Triglav had a black horse with a saddle decorated with gold and silver.
Triglav has three heads because he directs three worlds, the heaven, the earth, and the underworld. He is mentioned by some medieval authors such as Ebbo 12th cent. Adam of Bremen assumed that the name comes from the triangular shape of Wolin Island Ovsec Ebbo reported on the cult of Triglav in Szczecin, writing that the middle, and the largest, of the three hills that guarded the entrance to the city was dedicated to Triglav. On the hill stood a statue of a higher deity with three silver heads adorned with a golden tiara.
An early medieval stone sculpture representing a head with three faces was found in the church of St. Martin near Silberberg, not far from St. Veit an der Glan in Austria. The right cheek and the neck of the stone head each have a carving of two more faces, which could be a remainder of the three-headed deity of the Alpine Slavs Kahl 9— It seems that the statue was of Pre-Roman origin.
South Slavs called the deity Trajan or Trojan. The Trojan of Serbian folktales has three heads, one of which devours humans, another cattle, and the third fish, all of which represent victims of three empires. Since Trajan set off into the world at night he has been classified as a supernatural being of lunar, or chthonic, character. Some researchers were of the opinion An early medieval stone sculpture of a head that, apart from the name, the god Triglav with three faces, St.
Martin near Silberberg is allegedly not related to Mt. Triglav, the highest mountain in Slovenia, and has nothing in common with it. Triglav was named after a three-headed deity. His view was shared by Anton von Mailly, who wrote in a note on the tale about it that Triglav Terglov, Tricorno, Dreikopf was a mountain dedicated to the Slavic god Triglav. The image with three heads was depicted in the temple in Brandenburg and in Szczecin Mailly Triglav stone lapis Terglev is mentioned in the Salzburg land register of in relation with an estate in Ptuj where the Triglav stone is situated.
However, Andrej Pleterski believes that the stone in question is most likely the Orpheus stone. Lubor Niederle believed that Triglav was the god of war and not a Pan-Slavic god as some scholars claimed. Damjan Ovsec, in contrast, is of the opinion that Triglav, with his black horse and silver heads, is definitely not a solar deity but a supernatural being of the lunar world.
He compared Triglav with the three-headed Celtic deity or horned god Cernunosos Ovsec According to this tale, a thieving knight once had a castle in one of the peaks of Mt. Together with his squires he terrorized his serfs and waylaid traveling merchants. But the knight received his punishment when he was attacked by a much stronger foe that destroyed his castle and killed him. The brigand was punished for his sins by having to restlessly wander in human form for three hundred years.
When his punishment ended, he found an elderly destitute couple living beneath Mt. Triglav and set out to help them to wealth. The elderly couple was rewarded with unimagined wealth, and the cursed knight was finally able to lie down to eternal rest.
Much of the narrative material on Mt. Triglav, particularly Dovje and Mojstrana. Belenus and Belestis Belenus, also named Belin or Belinus was an important deity venerated by the people of Noricum and Carnia. This principal god in Noricum was the god of light, the sun, and the healing powers, and, according to Tertullian beg. It spread from Noricum to Carnia and Aquileia, where it became so strong that Belenus became the patron saint of Aquileia.
From there, the cult expanded to Celeia. Belestis was worshipped as a health-bringing goddess of light responsible for the birth and the development of living beings, and as such was the patron of nature and fertility. One of the altars in Podljubelj features a tree, a panther, and an unidentified wild animal. Since shrines dedicated to Belestis were typically erected on mountain passes, worshippers who visited them were generally travellers.
Since Belenus was primarily considered the god of light and the sun, he was frequently equated with the ancient Greek god Apollo. As such, Belestis might be closest to the Roman goddess Diana and to the Illyrian goddess Silvana, the companion to Silvan. As a Slavic deity, Belenus was reconstructed after the mythological tradition of the western Slavs who had settled along the Baltic Sea, in north-eastern Poland, and in northeastern Germany.
Many scholars therefore concluded that the Slavs also worshipped Belbog bel- means white , god of light, although his name is not mentioned in the Chronicle of the Slavs. The first is perceived as a positive location, while the last denotes a negative one.
It seems that the Slavs who had settled the territory of present-day Slovenia had brought the cult of Belbog, or Belinus, with them. When they found the existing lore about Belenus in their new homeland, they recognized in him a god that was at least partly similar to their own god. Gradually merging into one, the two traditions have been preserved to this day. They are their lovers who guard pure gold. The nymphs stay there throughout the night.
Slovenian oral tradition, particularly from Gorizia and Tolmin, has preserved the memory of St.
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|Mary j blige ft 50 cent mp3 torrent||The folks were happy, and the only thing that irritated them was the rooster with marko mulec kontakt torrent incessant link. It bore no fruit, but there was no need for food anyway. According to proto-Indo-European religion, it rides on the back of Varuna, the Vedic god who created the world from original chaos. Damjan Ovsec, in contrast, is of the opinion that Triglav, with his black horse and silver heads, is definitely not a solar deity but a supernatural being of the lunar world. Triglav, particularly Dovje and Mojstrana. When she finally saw him on the roof, she called him by his name, and Kresnik fell down and killed himself.|
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