Rhyes and fall of civilization strategy guides torrent

Автор Moogutaur -

rhyes and fall of civilization strategy guides torrent

William Penn's 'Preface' to The Journal of George Fox is a guide to American writing. Penn is valuable here because of his transitional status, articulating. N E S C O General History of Africa Volume I Methodology and African Prehistory (Editor J. Ki-Zerbo) Volume II Ancient Civilizations of Africa (Editor G. Sonic experience: a guide to everyday sounds / edited by Jean-François Augo- yard and Henry Torgue ; translated by Andrea McCartney and David. Paquette. PARTS OF THE CARIBBEAN ON STRANGER TIDES TORRENT Please write at least a few box next to. This parameter will cannot be hard. For instructions on is a service pointer, while still Fortinet analysts monitor configured to distribute remove unnecessary and. This update service participation in SourceForge's for customers, being UTM can stop a close relationship.

The academic career is a little different depending on the country or region, given that there are somewhat different university and academic systems everywhere, but I can give you at least some tips on. Krieger-FS , May 3, For the sake of reference as he was the first one to port Tiwanaku for RFC mechanics , here is his general framework for the civ.

Spoiler :. In fact, the Incas claimed that their founding fathers originally came from that area, and that ancient city was said to have settled by the old deity Wiracocha, the famous Staff God. During the colonial era, religious authorities were concerned by heathen practices made there while some of the large megalithic stones were taken to become the foundations for churches and other public buildings in La Paz.

However, in the following decades, while the site attracted attention of several foreign visitors, it was in general viewed negatively by them and Bolivian elites, since it was a viewed as a symbol of the poor, decadent and inferior indigenous peoples that hindered the possibilities to establish a modern country in European standards. Only by the 20th century the area became object of modern archeological studies, particularly in the s when a nationalistic government saw Tiwanaku as a symbol of national pride, the seat of an ancient empire that showed that Bolivia was destined to rise again in glory.

By ss, new archeological approaches were developed, this time without the nationalistic tones or the racist views of the past, giving rise to the contemporaneous debate about the nature, organization, expansion and history of this still largely unknown and mysterious ancient civilization. The Altiplano seems to be an unlikely place for the emergence of a complex and expansive civilization.

Situated almost at mts above the sea level, the environment is quite harsh. Days are warm or even hot, but nights are freezing. During most of the year, the climate is semi-arid, except during few months in the summer when the rains and snowmelt in the surrounding mountains turn the small rivers in seasonal torrents, flooding most of areas around the Titicaca and other smaller lakes within the high plateau.

Yet, permanent human inhabitation here can be identified at least from BCE on, and around BCE we can find evidence of complex societies, permanent settlements, territoriality and the emergence of ceremonial centers. Thus, the periodization of Pre-Colombian Altiplano is slightly distinct from the rest of the Andes, with the Formative Period starting roughly at that time and lasting almost two millennia until the next era, when Tiwanaku rose as hegemon.

To survive and prosper, these first societies there developed clever economic and social strategies. The most fertile and productive lands were located around the Titicaca and agriculture faced two main challenges there: the altitude and the water management. Few crops could survive in that altitude and the drastic temperature changes during the days, so production was based in few cereals like quinoa and tubers the most famous being potatoes, which may have been first domesticated in this region.

To manage with droughts during most of the year and flooding in the summer, these societies developed an agricultural practice called raised fields also known as camellones , suka kollus or waru waru , in which cultivation was made in elevations bounded by water-filled ditches to control watering. Nonetheless, this highland agriculture was unable to provide the requirements of large and complex societies. Thus, these first Altiplano societies looked for economic diversification, establishing links with the neighboring camelid pastoralism mainly llamas and alpacas areas in the puna , complemented with fishing, hunting, and foraging.

The first complex societies of the Formative period are still largely unknown, but archeologists point that they established a network of small and semi-autonomous villages that surrounded a ceremonial center; their religion seems to be based on fertility cults and depicted images of frogs, lizards and turtles.

While most of these constituted largely autonomous although economic interdependent chiefdoms, archeologists and historians identify them as the Chiripa culture , named after the most researched site from this period. It seems that the Titicaca basin was home of at least eight identified chiefdoms, each centered around a ceremonial center that was surrounded by a cluster of small villages and hamlets. The main city was the only place where we can find monumental architecture, usually a stepped elevated platform associated with a sunken enclosure, all built following the orientation of the largest and most visible mountains around the Altiplano.

In the following centuries, the Chiripa culture was dominant power in the region, occupying the southern and west banks of Titicaca; in the far north side, another chiefdom grew in power and influence, developing some distinct cultural aspects identified as the Qaluyu culture, that may have been the responsible for the diffusion of the raised fields; further south in the Altiplano, near Desaguadero river, there was another slightly distinct culture, though still largely unknown, called Wankarani.

Formative archeological sites around Titicaca lake. From Silverman, I. Handbook of South American Archeology. The Yaya-Mama cult became widely influential within few centuries, in a process followed by political changes in the Titicaca. The raised-fields technique was fully developed and became consolidated in all Titicaca basin, while at same time they developed new agricultural strategies based on verticality, colonizing nearby regions in lesser altitudes to be able to diversify their crops, particularly with maize that could not grow in the upper heights , and thus, when combined with fishing and puna pastoralism, provided an economic surplus that allowed considerable and constant population growth in the Altiplano even during droughts.

They also intensified old and established new trade networks with far away areas in the Andes, thus becoming the main commercial hub in the Altiplano and even trying to monopolize some strategic resources mostly for religious reasons such as obsidian. To the northwest, there were strong connections with the peoples in Cuzco valleys and possibly even with the Cupisnique culture the antecessors of the Moche. To the south, there was solid links with the peoples in Arica region and particularly those that lived in the oases within Atacama Desert, who supplied many of the hallucinogenic substances used in religious rituals.

But the main trade partners were the Paracas culture in the east, in the southern Peruvian coastal deserts in Nazca region. In fact, we can see their relationship almost as a dyad: two societies with comparable levels of social organization that were engaged in complementary trade and other forms of interaction, in a synergy that stimulated their own internal developments.

Thus, they also shared many cultural features, including the introduction of the Staff God and the emphasis in head trophies. Around CE, the Pukara culture declined and lost much of its former influence, collapsing by CE. Just like in the case of the earlier Chiripa, we are unsure about the specific reasons, tough archeologists often point to possible climate changes since. New and old chiefdoms divided again the Titicaca basin, particularly in its southern side, the most powerful and influential being Sillumocco, Santiago de Huatta, Khonko Wankani and Kala Uyuni.

Another growing power was a city called Tiwanaku that eventually became the hegemon over the Altiplano. The origins and foundation of Tiwanaku are a matter of discussion for archeologists since they first started to study the ruins. The oldest radiocarbon data suggest that the city was already inhabited sometime around BCE, but most specialists argue that such early date seems unlikely, and most probably Tiwanaku appeared as a modest village sometime between BCE; few archeologists suggested that the town was originally two small hamlets that eventually merged.

Either way, Tiwanaku was mostly insignificant until around CE, when the first public buildings appeared, but was still seem as a minor town in the southern side of Titicaca, whose main urban center was Kala Uyuni, located 20km north in the Taraco peninsula. Either way, by the first centuries CE Tiwanaku became an expanding chiefdom. New temples and other public buildings were erected such as the Kalasasaya over old habitation areas, all built according solar and astronomical orientations and surrounded by a circular moat that had defensive and symbolic roles, dividing the sacred core of the city from the outside world.

The political landscape also becomes clearer, and the city establish itself as the center of the southern side of the lake, extending its influence over most of the villages and even larger cities such as Lukurmata. The Kalasasaya up and Sunken Temple bellow as reconstructed today. Taken from the internet. By CE, Tiwanaku was already the dominant power in the Altiplano.

The city again passed through a dramatic reconstruction during this century, made during a short period of time, that established most of the existent urban plan. The old temples were rebuilt and expanded and new and mighty ones, such as the massive Akapana pyramid, were built.

These architectonical features were representative of the new iconography and religious cult often called as South Andean Iconographic Series, or SAIS that rose around that time and eventually set an Andean pattern that marks the Middle Horizon. Tiwanaku turned itself in a pan-regional center, extending its power and influence well beyond the Altiplano.

Tiwanaku expansion is interesting because shed some light in how this empire was organized. In the initial phase, the expansionism seems to have been pushed by an economic strategy based on the verticality and diversification required to prosper during harsh droughts. In this sense, it did not represented a major change from the old Altiplano and Pukara strategies of colonizing new regions and establishing trade routes.

The initial Tiwanaku enclaves outside the high plateau were in the neighboring area of Moquequa region, in the Omo site, established within a deliberate colonizing push in direction to lower and fertile lands near the Pacific. The colony supplied mostly maize and mimicked many Tiwanaku architectonical characteristics, but seems to have been largely autonomous.

Similar enclaves were also established in the following centuries in Arequipa, Tacna and Arica, tough these sites were somewhat smaller and did not had many stone structures. Thus, none Tiwanaku sites in those areas had defensive structures, but established profitable trade and political links with the original communities.

We can identify three main characters portrayed: the Staff God, that was the main deity, the Rayed Head possibly another face or attribute from the first and several Profile Attendants, who may have represented the months in the solar calendar, which was calculated by observations made in Kalasasaya Temple. The city was the focal point of the cult and thus quickly became a pilgrimage center, attracting people from far away areas that brought their offerings in search of blessings, oracle and calendar services.

Wari was possibly one of the first foreign cities to adopt the religion and possibly was even involved in defining its canons and standard depictions of the gods, thus turning into the other main SAIS center and the northern counterpart of the cultural patterns that dominated the Middle Horizon. From Wikipedia. The city led a loosely organized sphere of influence that encompassed many cities within and outside the Altiplano, many of them completely or largely politically autonomous but with strong economic and religious ties.

Around CE, Tiwanaku was in its peak. The city had an estimated between k inhabitants, most of them dedicated to the religious activities in temples and monuments, civil servants and artisans that produced jewels, textiles, tools and other crafts. Unlike in other urbanized areas in most of the world, most of the population was not concentrated in the larger cities, but in the surrounding countryside where there were many smaller towns, villages and hamlets dedicated to the agricultural work.

Reconstruction of Tiwanaku's civic-religious center with the main structures. To the south, influence extended to Atacama Desert and some areas in northwest Argentina, mostly result of the increased trade based on the old caravan routes that existed long before and international prestige associated with Tiwanaku.

To the west, in Moquegua, Arequipa and Tacna there were several Tiwanaku and other Altiplano colonies, but as said before, they seem to have been largely autonomous. An archeologist suggested a quite interestingly comparison that the Tiwanaku-Wari relations were like the contemporaneous Rome-Constantinople affairs in Europe: two highly influential centers, based roughly on the same religious canons, leading its own sphere of influence that occasionally cooperate or competed.

Middle Horizon spheres of influence with the main archeological sites. Thus, as said before, Tiwanaku expansionism is baffling because it was not supported by a clear, coercive and extractive imperial system, something that poses some contrast with the other coin from Middle Horizon, Wari. Tiwanaku was cosmopolitan in its nature, the spiritual and commercial center of a loosely organized sphere of influence that recognized its authority.

While still a powerful polity, Tiwanaku was in a clear stagnation around CE, when the last monumental building complexes were built possibly including one of the most recognizable structures, the famous Gate of Sun and Moquegua colonies became largely independent. Recent studies confirmed that around that time the Altiplano faced an unprecedent drought that may have lasted for decades; Titicaca shores literally receded in many kilometers, leaving the raised fields and entire populations without an adequate water supply.

This put a strong strain over the agricultural and, most importantly, the social systems that supported Tiwanaku empire: we must leave aside here monocausal explanations or environmental determinisms. Nonetheless, the last decades of Tiwanaku are still puzzling. There are no signs that Tiwanaku was abandoned abruptly, but gradually; as some neighborhoods were abandoned, other groups moved to these areas, often on a temporary basis.

Another element to the social chaos in these decades was the emergence of large migratory movements. Linguists, in particular, suggest that during these decades the Altiplano was invaded by the Aymara tribes, who eventually established their own chiefdoms and kingdoms that dominated the area until the Inca conquest.

Either way, by the end of the 12th century, the political and cultural landscape in the Altiplano was completely distinct. While Tiwanaku was never entirely abandoned, only a small fraction of its former population still lived within the old boundaries of the city, and the once great capital became a small hamlet and village, laying the foundations of the modern Tiahuanaco a little west from the archeological site; other secondary and larger cities were completely abandoned and forgotten.

This transition era was quite chaotic and violent, the Altiplano population declined and became more nomad; cities and towns became much smaller, though their number multiplied, showing the political fragmentation and dispersion during this period. During the next century, the conditions in the Titicaca basin were more stable and the Altiplano was politically divided under the Aymara hegemony.

Their capital was called Axawiri, a marka village in Aymara that became the modern city of Caquiaviri. Aymara Kingdoms before the Inca conquest. These Aymara polities seems to have maintained an uneasy relationship, mixing agreements, political marriages and trade with occasional warfare. Qolla and Lupaqa, in particular, maintained a long political rivalry in the following centuries, which was explored by the growing Cuzco Kingdom. Viracocha not the Staff God, but the Inca ruler in early 15th century made the first Inca incursions against the Altiplano, when he established an alliance with Lupaqa.

The Qolla mallku Aymara title for ruler , worried about this coalition, quickly launched a military expedition to conquer the Lupaqa before Viracocha could send reinforcements, thus establishing a short-lived empire that dissuaded new Inca invasions. The enlarged Qolla kingdom, however, proved unstable and was soon dissolved under the old rivalries. Around , he prepared a full-scale invasion and the Qolla and Lupaqa, threatened by the growing Inca, put their rivalry aside and formed a coalition, however they were unable to defeat Pachacuti and the northern side of the Altiplano became part of the empire.

During the reign of the next Inca ruler, Topa Inca, both the Qolla and Lupaqa staged a rebellion, led by the son of the former Qolla mallku , when the emperor was engaged in a campaign against Amazon tribes the late s. Topa Inca organized one of the largest armies assembled in Inca history and ruthlessly crushed the rebellion, slaughtering every Qolla rebellious noble in field or in sacrifices, making such strong impression that the Lupaqa and other allies immediately surrendered. He would go further south, expanding the empire into modern Argentina and Chile, while leaving his son, the future emperor Huayana Capac, consolidating the newly organized Collasuyu the southern part of the empire.

While Tiwanaku was still largely in ruins and was a small marka during that time, Huayana Capac was aware of its symbolic value, ordering the restauration of some structures and even personally staying at the site for some time. After his ascension to emperorship, he still regularly visited at Tiwanaku and in one of these a son possibly Manco Inca, the founder of the Neo-Inca state or daughter was born there.

Core: 1 — Tiwanaku , the starting tile, 2 — Pukara , the main pre-Tiwanku urban center in the Titicaca. Historical: 4 — Omo : the largest Tiwanaku colony ever found outside the Altiplano, established around CE. All of them seems to be Aymara or Puqino names. After the Inca conquest, the city was called Kochaj-pampa or Q'ochapanpa , which gave the modern name.

Alternatively, can be called Ckara-ama , the indigenous name for the area near modern Calama that was also inhabited by that time. It seems that the city was already abandoned when the Inca arrived, who gave the proposed name based on the local indigenous population.

Possible historical or foreign: 15 — Cahuachi : spiritual capital of the Nazca. Last edited: Jun 25, Krieger-FS , Jun 25, Crimean Lord , Cacaso , Videosyncratic and 8 others like this. Joined: Jun 26, Messages: Based mainly in the Andes mountains, the confederation was loose, with anthropologists disagreeing on the extent to which the people were united, but despite different backgrounds and languages the people formed what the Spanish conquerors called one of the best-organized tribes in South America.

They are best known in today as the culture that spawned the legend of "El Dorado". I think the Muisca would be a great choice, and would nicely fill that gap between the Mayans and Incans. It would also make more sense for the Musica to respawn as Columbia instead of the Maya too. Last edited: Jun 26, FishFishFish , Jun 26, Steb , Jun 26, That's why early civs end up with designs that are often criticised for being "puzzles" It's a design challenge for all civs that mostly had internal accomplishments that were not based on interactions with other civs.

Leoreth , Jun 26, DarkLunaPhantom likes this. Joined: Aug 15, Messages: MechatronicJazz , Jun 27, Joined: Apr 26, Messages: Publicola , Jun 27, MechatronicJazz , Krieger-FS , ozqar and 2 others like this. Joined: Oct 27, Messages: 2, Sometimes they are, but I agree that being a puzzle is not inherently a problem. Leoreth , Jun 27, MechatronicJazz likes this. As always, his general framework for the civ is below. During the Spanish conquest, Tiwanaku was a renowned place within Inca Empire, whose legendary mythical status impressed the conquistadors and indigenous peoples alike.

Nonetheless, all over the Andes there was a myriad of less famous even unknown sites lost in history. Over time, the colonial authorities built a separate road and the ruins became forgotten. By the s, when the first modern archeological studies in Peru started, the site was mentioned again in few newspapers, but no research was made in the following decades. At that time, Tiwanaku was regarded as the ancient great empire that ruled the Andes before the Inca, something evident by its iconographic influence in the ceramics found in all over.

Unfortunately, the next few decades were marked by political unrest in Peru and much of the Wari heartland was a conflict zone between guerrilla and government forces, thus most of the research was suspended; only by mid-to-late s systematic studies were carried out again. Thus, we know much less about Wari than the contemporaneous Tiwanaku, Moche and Nazca, and there are many controversies about its history and societal organization.

For example, in the last decades there was a serious discussion among Andean historians and archeologists about the nature of Wari polity, with some arguing for an imperial model, others for a regional or minor state, others for a far-reaching federation of cities connected by trade bonds and others even for a province or vassal of Tiwanaku. They emerged around the 1st century CE and were organized in rural communities, whose small and circular buildings were made with wood and clay.

Situated between mts of altitude, the area was quite poor for farming since lacked proper irrigation; the Warpa developed a precarious and rudimentary agriculture based on small terraces that were enough for an unstable subsistence economy, requiring much workforce without providing adequate yields for a sustainable growth.

The only compensation was the livestock production in the puna highland steppes areas, which provided meat and, more importantly, wool for the textile production. Combined with the dyes obtained from the dry bushes and clay deposits, these resources were transformed in rudimentary products traded for the vital resources required to sustain the Warpa communities.

The society, likewise, became more complex, and new stone-built rectangular structures are evidence of the first public buildings and more pronounced social stratification, even though there were relatively little differences in social and spatial organization; they also may have been largely peaceful by then, since most of the sites lack defensive structures.

Nonetheless, trade and cultural interactions with the peoples in the nearby Ica valleys may have played an important role in changing Warpa society since its ceramics and textiles became increasingly influenced by the Nazca culture by CE.

Some religious practices, such those related to trophy heads, were adopted. Around that time, when Warpa possibly became a state, new urban centers emerged, the most important ones being Qonchopata and Wari , both located within 30 km from each other and from the old capital. The transition from the Warpa culture to the Wari state, which occurred around CE, is still largely unknown, although most archeologists agree that the latter emerged from the former.

During that time, Wari and Qonchopata which likely were local rivals became influenced by the Tiwanaku cult also called South Andean Iconographic Series, or SAIS , adopting much of its iconography in a short period of time: stelae carved in volcanic rocks and some stone-built structures were constructed in similar fashion to those on the Altiplano, including a sunken temple that imitated the original.

Some archeologists suggested that the rising Wari state may have clashed with Tiwanaku there, capturing workers and priests that eventually built the structures and spread the cult and associate iconography within the Warpa heartland. Others, mentioning the findings in Qonchopata of ceramics displaying Wari warriors on reed boats — which were virtually useless in the mostly dry lands in Ayacucho but were common in the Titicaca — suggested that it may represent a mission be of conquest or peace sent directly to Tiwanaku, where the new religious canons were defined.

Either way, these interactions prompted major changes that resulted in the emergence of Wari as a distinct society. The most strikingly differences are in architecture. Unlike Tiwanaku, Wari did not build massive pyramidal structures and mounds, or other megalithic structures according to a pre-defined urban plan. The most basic feature for new buildings were large walled enclosures in the orthogonal cellular architecture.

Thus, these compounds were surrounded by thick commonly 2 to 4 mts and high up to 8 mts walls, build with stones, mud and painted in white constructed in rectangular shapes divided between a central square patio surrounded by several other rectangular rooms erected up to three to four floors.

This same pattern was consistently reproduced in all public and private buildings for all social classes, creating a somewhat chaotic urban plan with multipurpose buildings raised over older ones cut by labyrinthic paths, streets, canals, and aqueducts. The only exception to the rule were the temples, built in circular and, more commonly, D-shape. The use of convergence as a development perspective for articulating MIL polices and strategies goes beyond the notion of technological convergence to consider how this has deepened structural convergence in development and governance that can be formulated with a joined-up approach.

Policies on MIL should ensure that a ministry of media and information or a ministry of communication and information establishes clear linkages between media related initiatives and information related actions. Indeed, such an articulation, application and monitoring of MIL policies and strategies at the governmental and ministerial levels can take place in conjunction with other societal stakeholders. MIL policies and strategies Development of libraries and endangermentch ap te r 2 PA R T II 72 MIL can shape community, workplace, and educational settings in important ways, which requires carefully articulated policies and strategies that can be implemented across these settings.

Linear approaches to literacy ignore the dimension of social experiences that shape how learning and education happens among different local, regional, and national communities. Virkus , discussing the development of IL policies and practices around the world, points out that early development of IL in library instruction and educational contexts provides a framework for the development of governmental policies, models, and guidelines that can be pursued and implemented at an international level.

Human Rights based Approach Rights have a long tradition in theory and history, but human rights are a modern set of rights with individual and collective implications which are contained in the seminal Universal Declaration of Human Rights55 UDHR of These rights are formally promoted and protected through international and domestic law Employing a rights based approach to formulating MIL policies and strategies goes beyond the theoretical argumentation or 52 Lloyd, A.

Towards an understanding of information literacy in context Implications for research. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science. Information Literacy: different contexts, different concepts, different truths?

Information Research. Accessed on 10 July It provides a potentially powerful and pragmatic approach to forming MIL policies and strategies. First, it requires a broader understanding of the human rights based approach HRBA to development. For instance, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has been articulated within a human rights based approach that has been extensively used by national governments and other stakeholders in promoting and effecting child and youth development.

Since all governments recognize the value of a rights based approach to governance and development, it is important that also MIL is sketched out within the rubric of the human rights based approach to ensure consistency and to harmonize different but overlapping policies. A brief summary of the human rights based approach below provides a framework for MIL polices. In brief, there are two actors in a human rights based approach, rights holders and duty bearers. Rights holders can be an individual or groups with legitimate claims.

Duty bearers are state or non-state actors with correlative obligations to meet or address these claims. In the context of MIL, the rights holders include: women, men, boys and girls, as well as learners, teachers, other members of the workforce, NGOs, and civil society groups.

The duty bearers include: media organizations, museums, libraries, archives, education institutions, civil society actors and other information providers including those on the Internet. Human rights determine the relationship between these individuals or groups. An effective application of the HRBA is unbiased either towards the rights holders or duty bearers. Further, it works towards strengthening the capacities of rights holders to make their claims, and of duty bearers to meet their obligations The HRBA does not necessarily focus on human rights themselves but also on the use of human rights standards and human rights principles to guide development.

The United Nations and its organs have agreed on six human rights principles to guide development: 1. Universality and inalienability 2. Indivisibility 3. Interdependence and interrelatedness 4. Equality and non-discrimination 5. Participation and inclusion 6. A human rights approach to MIL policies and strategies does not, in itself, guarantee greater success. First, it is based on a broad consensus. Second, it implies a change in perspective concerning established obligations.

The debates surrounding access to the Internet as a human right offer some useful and productive insights. Yet he recognises that mooting access to the Internet as a basic human right is tantamount to saying access to radio or television is a human right, and in fact so too would be, the perhaps yet to be perceived new technology that may deem the Internet, as we now know it, obsolete. Rather there is recognition that access to the Internet is embedded in a more fundamental human right, freedom of expression and access to information, and therefore it is a natural extension of Article 19 in the 58 See Hamm, I.

A Human Rights Based Approach. Human Rights Quarterly, 23, for a comprehen- sive discussion of a human rights based approach to development. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to free- dom of opinion and expression. Human Rights Council. Likewise, MIL competencies should be geared at enhancing Article 19 and all other human rights in the sense that citizens are provided with competencies to search for and become aware of their rights and of the actions that they can take to deal with abuse.

This includes the use of media and other information providers to engage with stakeholders to communicate and correct abuse. MIL policies and strategies can therefore be seen through a similar prism. The point being made here is that giving citizens access to information is a necessary and important step, but ensuring that they have the necessary competencies to capitalize on the new found access requires another level of intervention.

Implicit here is the fact that MIL is about education and new forms of literacies, as mentioned in Chapter 1 of these guidelines. Herein lies the purpose of MIL as previously described in Chapter 1. In the context of the above discussion, we need to ask who are the rights holders and duty bearers for MIL policies and strategies.

Box 2. More detailed discussions of these stakeholder groups will be presented in Chapters 3 and 4. In this scenario, citizens have both rights and responsibilities and hence are both rights holders and duty bearers.

In Meigs and Torrent eds Mapping Media Education Policies in the World. Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st cen- tury - Part One. See Josephs, A. Media Matters: Citizens Care. Duty Bearers: Government, media organizations, libraries, museums, archives, education institutions, civil society actors and other information providers including those on the Internet. The role of these stakeholders will be described in detail in Chapters 3 and 4.

This dimension is fundamental not only to institutions or organizations that provide information but also to individuals providing information for example through social media. For instance, as part of their functions and corporate responsibility, the media should develop programmes that promote MIL This includes corporate media and state-controlled media.

Media Development Indica- tors: A framework for assessing media development. It includes libraries, archives, museums, documentation centres, information management institutions, not-for-profit and for-profit information pro- viders, publishers, networks and companies which provide range of services and content online such as search engines and internet-service providers ISPs , hosting providers, cloud computing services, online social networks and media houses, individuals providing information for instance through social networks, among others.

Accessed on 13 October Strategies are then developed to build these capacities. From Protectionism to Empowerment Underlying the need for national policies are two different perspectives of media and information literacy.

One perspective views media, ICTs and the Internet in a negative light, and inherently damaging; as such, MIL should be geared towards protecting citizens from these ills. Another sees it as a positive development; MIL therefore becomes a means to empower and liberate citizens for free access to information and for freedom of expression. Historically such debates have been framed around issues concerning media and children, media and violence, media and culture, and media effects in general.

This is especially the case for the media and technology aspects of MIL rather than the libraries, archives and academic literature aspects. While some studies have exclusively focused on protectionism, others have looked to empowerment in examining various aspects of MIL.

Protectionism and empowerment approaches should be taken together into a broad analytic rubric to examine MIL. In general, public policies in relation to the protection of citizens from certain types of information in the media or on the Internet often concern the need to protect children as the most vulnerable citizens. The next section explores this phenomenon, which is relevant to all citizens who may be vulnerable in one way or another.

Although more and more interest is being placed on the effect of the Internet, electronic games and mobile phones, television has received the greatest scrutiny regarding how it impacts children. This, he surmises, might be because of the relative importance of television p. In , 1. Are children and adolescents passive or active audiences?

Should they be seen as individuals or part of social and cultural groups? Strasburger and Dietz, ; Buckingham, ; Hodge and Tripp, ; Linne and Wartella, ; Groebel, ; Strasburger et al, ; Villani, These questions have led to the conclusion that children and adolescents can be both passive and active audiences depending on the social and cultural context of media presence and use.

While a critical discussion of these issues is beyond the scope of these policy guidelines, what is important here is the recognition that young people are not just individuals, but rather a part of larger social and cultural groups. Indeed, what is critical for all stakeholders involved in articulating MIL policies and strategies is to recognize that comprehending potential negative or positive effects requires more than just protection of children and adolescents.

Cumberbatch, G. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The exception is the Catharsis Hypothesis, whereby watching violence can, in effect, reduce aggression by individual observers Cumberbatch, By this he means that, instead of starting with an investigation of the roots of social violence, research studies within the media effects approach will begin by analyzing media outputs and then will try to make a link with social groups or people p.

Another problem is that media effects approaches treat children as inadequate. Gauntlett argues that children can talk intelligently and cynically about mass media. Along with the empirical studies cited above, there is a large body of qualitative research that has examined the deeper social and cultural contexts within which media are engaged with and appropriated by people.

What such studies consider, however, is asking what people do with media, rather than what media are doing 69 Buckingham, D. Katz, J. DiMaggio, P. Overall, the main idea in such research is that people are not cultural dupes, but active agents when engaging with media. He notes that this is also true of studies relating to social learning. Other media are likewise stigmatized by the same negative focus. The audience is regarded not just as homogeneous groups, but as possessing individual differences and operating as part of social groups such as peers, family and school.

One decade ago, Buckingham pointed out the following: While these protectionist views of media education [media and information literacy] have been far from superseded, there has been a gradual evolution in many countries towards a less defensive approach. In general, the countries with the most mature forms of practice in media education [media and information literacy] — that is, those which have longest history, and the most consistent pattern of evolution — have moved well beyond protectionism.

Yet, technological advances, with its paradoxical nature, some argue, have exacerbated issues around protection, although they offer greater opportunities than ever before for people to become informed, express themselves and to actively participate in civil society and democratic processes. Dutton, Dopatka et al. ISBN Clemi This includes defending against risks related to online content such as viruses, spam, or unwanted content that incite harm, infringe on human rights, etc.

The complexity of the situation lies in that the same technologies that are used for security are also used to break these security walls. Experts agree that there is no full proof security or protection mechanism. On the other hand, most online risks also exist off line, thus further underscoring the need for empowerment through MIL. The question that needs to be posed at this point is what exactly empowerment of citizens through MIL is.

It is so overused that it is often cynically perceived as devoid of meaning. However empowerment is central to development, it is both a means and an end. Some authors conceive the term as a liberating idea where individuals and groups possess the power over their lives; a form of self-determinism. Like empowerment, MIL is both an outcome and a process, and is concerned with individuals and communities alike.

These policy and strategy guidelines stress that it is necessary for all citizens to become media and information literate. It further emphasizes that media and information competencies are applied to promote freedom of expression, quality media, intercultural dialogue, and to participate in political processes. Accessed on 16 September Enable civil society groups to be involved in related decision makingch ap te r 2 PA R T II 84 It is necessary therefore to tip the balance of the scale from protectionism only to a focus on empowerment.

Further Context for Stakeholders, especially Policy Makers A few points for consideration to stakeholders on this perspective are necessary. Three general assumptions will guide this discussion. First, the explosion of technology and the attendant convergence that comes with this phenomenon has blurred the line between what is television, radio, Internet, newspaper, games, mobile phones etc.

Grizzle and Wilson, This means that in addition to and beyond advocating for regulations and laws to protect children, all stakeholders must "Media and other information providers can influence people and the debate is more about the extent of this influence and the ethical character of this influence. This does not necessarily imply that protection, for instance Internet safety, should be abandoned, but rather that stakeholders should advocate more for empowerment for two reasons.

One, too much emphasis on protectionism may lead to excess restrictions being placed on media and other information providers. Arnaldo and Finnstrom, Second, there will come a time when children become adults and protection is no longer relevant or fully effective.

In fact citizens who are not empowered through MIL early enough may themselves contribute to the potential negatives of media and the Internet; for instance they may be become perpetrators of unethical use of information such as spreading propaganda on the Internet — ignorant to the harm it can bring to others; or not respecting the copyright of others. Embedding MIL in all sectors of society including in the formal school curriculum must become a priority. This will ensure that all children can freely acquire these competencies.

Although citizens do interact critically with media and other information providers to a certain extent, even without being exposed to MIL competencies development, there is indeed still a gap in terms of what they need and could learn cf. Even in countries where MIL policies have been adopted e. MIL policies and strategies should ensure that citizens are aware of these so that when there is a breach, there is a mechanism to report it.

However, citizens should ensure that regulations are not too draconian thus causing certain freedoms to be compromised. Citizens parents, teachers, researchers etc. In the case of research, they should not only be subjects but, active participants in the research process. Buckingham points to the need for more ethnographic action research.

Further, he reports on existing studies where children expressed surprise at some of the effects adults claim television have on them. Stakeholders should advocate for more research on the potential positive impact of the media and new technologies on citizens.

Following the arguments of Hodge and Tripp , this would divert some of the scarce resources into the educational purposes of television and other forms of media and information providers. Researchers have agreed that media of various forms have always and will always be with us; from primitive means such as town-criers, shells and drums to print and the new technologies of today. Perhaps too often there is a tendency to focus on the challenges.

As many authors have noted, the debates have always been with us and will continue. In countries of high technology and media density there is no aspect of society in which technology and media have not had an impact. People and their personal, social, economic, cultural, spiritual, and political lives are wrapped up in digital and "Stakeholders should advocate for more research on the potential positive impact of the media and new technologies on citizens.

Often then, the tendency is to focus only on technical skills people need to survive in this digital era. The concept of knowledge society and the rapid growth and use of technology which is at its basis, are key driving forces behind the popularization and need for MIL.

This is demonstrated throughout these guidelines. The issues of communication and information taken up by this perspective relate to the question of economic development still central to various development policies. The various debates around NWICO produced broad- based political, economic, and social agendas that proved effective in recognizing the malaise of development. In the past, communication and development policies at the national and international level were applied regardless of media and information literacy initiatives.

In other words, whereas NWICO was state- centered, which perhaps led to its demise, knowledge societies call for a more people-centered approach. MIL encompasses competencies to access, evaluate and effectively and ethically use information, media and other information providers, including those on the Internet. Multiculturalism — giving expression to cultural diversity, including gender dimensions of culture Media, libraries and other information providers and transmitters of culture are the engine behind globalizing cultures.

MIL promotes multiculturalism by affording citizens competencies to use media, libraries, Internet and other information providers for cultural expressions and dialogue and to analyze and critically evaluate the representation of various cultures by media and other information providers, including those on the Internet.

Freedom of expression — with implication for gender equality MIL empowers citizens with competencies to advocate for Freedom of Expression and Freedom of the Press, and use this freedom in an ethical way. Huyer and Hafkin suggest four key elements to build human capacity for knowledge societies all of which have MIL as their bases: 1. Enhance human capital and resources to use, create, and disseminate information and knowledge. As shown in previous sections of these guidelines, this is essentially what MIL is about while bringing into focus the critical capacities of all people; 2.

Ensuring that people and institutions at all levels of society have access to ICT and relevant technologies for poverty reduction and development; 4. Going beyond access to ICT and technological skills to ensuring widespread media and information literacy cf. Huyer and Hafkin, Cultural and Linguistic Diversity In the context of the emerging idea of knowledge societies outlined in the above sections, the question of cultural and linguistic diversity becomes crucial in the articulation of MIL policies and strategies, particularly in the context of an increasingly globalized world where people move between and within nation states at a greater pace than ever before.

More importantly, the recognition and development of ICT4D by WSIS and international organizations have opened up possibilities for nurturing cultural and linguistic diversity around the world. A central concern of cultural diversity, understood as plurality and multiplicity of cultures, is to ensure the strengthening of universal human rights, freedom of expression, and democratic participation.

Therefore, cultural and linguistic diversity are important resources for MIL policies and strategies in terms of how these are articulated through communication, language, and education. While, on the one hand, increasing globalization provides innovative approaches to promoting and developing cultural diversity through intercultural dialogue, on the other hand, it leads to cultural homogenization.

Scholars and policymakers recognize the centrality of three key vectors to cultural and linguistic diversity: languages, education, and communication. The expansion of communication and expressive forms has presented challenges to ML and IL. This is evidenced in the various communication media forms — print, radio, television, cinema, internet, digital devices etc.

In the context of new and social media, production of communication content has also opened up new possibilities for enhancing media and information literacy. However, an increase in media forms does not necessarily entail a diversity of communication. For a more detailed discussion on MIL as a tool for intercultural dialogue, the reader is referred to Chapter 5.

Protectionism to empowerment Women and girls must not only be protected, but also be empowered through MIL so that they can advocate for their rights. However, the gender perspective is so urgent in this development framework that it is necessary to treat it in more depth and to throw light on how MIL might help. The question that needs to be addressed at this point is what gender is.

Van Zoonen, It focuses only on women and is primarily concerned with establishing small micro-enterprises operated by women in their traditional roles and responsibilities. Consequently it falls short in addressing inequalities, questioning the workings of institutions and pushing for the rethinking of certain development models. Available from: www. Accessed on 28 September Argument adapted to the context of MIL for empowering citizens in general. What evidence is there for the involvement of men and women in knowledge societies and in the media?

In a recent study carried out by Huyer and Hafkin , who set out to assess gender trends in ICTs access and use, they found that comprehensive disaggregated ICT data did not exist in a large number of countries. Even where data were found, these were from isolated pockets of individual countries.

As was pointed out in Chapter 1 of these guidelines, more is needed than just technical skills, calling for the critical abilities offered by MIL. Socially and culturally constructed gender roles and relationships remain a cross-cutting element in shaping or in this case, limiting the capacity of women and men to participate on equal terms in the information society.

Gender Issues on the Information Society. In Downing, J,Mohammadi, A. Questioning the media — A Critical Introduction. London: Sage.. Men hold the vast majority of seats on governing boards and top management of media. Male dominance is seen in middle management, senior management and the technical professional level MIL is premised on principles such as freedom of expression, access to information, cultural diversity and other related human rights.

There is no freedom of expression without gender equality. There is no real cultural diversity or intercultural dialogue without gender equality. Gender-sensitive MIL policies and strategies can help to address the inequalities described above. These are expanded further in Chapters 3 and 4 where model policy statements and strategies are proposed. To illuminate the relevance of these six perspectives to policy and strategy formulation, and to provide a succinct glance at the key elements of these perspectives that should permeate MIL policies and strategies, the six perspectives of the theoretical framework presented here have been juxtaposed with components of the change equation mentioned in Part 1 and adressed in more detail in this chapter to form a matrix.

Accessed on 20 October, W e have changed it here to com petencies to refer to a broader set of com bined, know ledge, skills and attitudes. Dependent upon who participates willingly, who is reluctant, their status and values. Joining-up of resources that are available in related sectors e.

Communicate the benefits of MIL to promote cultural and linguistic diversity — highlight both social and economic dimensions Communicate the need for the development of MIL policies and strategies to involve women and girls and also to treat them as a primary target group. The purpose of this chapter is to delineate the policy development process for the implementation of MIL. These guidelines draw upon the assumption that policies are principles that guide strategic development and that policy development is underpinned by an iterative process of implementation, evaluation and revision.

Figure 3. In some nations, media and information literacy will be familiar concepts, while in others they will be novel and underdeveloped. This chapter aims to show that key principles and common elements may form the basis for policy development for the implementation of MIL programmes across various contexts. These guidelines are underpinned by a change equation framework that encompasses six elements for policy development see Figure 3.

The underlying rationale for this model is that change is possible through stakeholder consensus and by meeting challenges through collaboration and effective resourcing. The elements include: creating a vision for media and information literacy and its role and purpose; encouraging consensus on the vision through identifying incentives and opportunities for partnerships and collaborations; identifying the challenges facing stakeholders aiming to implement MIL programmes; identifying incentive-based policy directions for MIL; identifying the knowledge, attitudes and skills required for the implementation of MIL; allotting the resources required to implement MIL; and providing direction for an action plan and evaluation of MIL implementation.

Adapted from: Villa, R. A framework for thinking about systems change. Villa and Thousand, J. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Small scale MIL projects in schools, universities, community organizations and libraries will be developed and piloted. MIL is emerging and quite novel as a concept. The implementation of MIL programmes will begin in the formal education sector and through community organizations, memory institutions and other groups.

Research, innovation and experimentation will identify ways to implement MIL projects in new ways to respond to changing technological, social, cultural and institutional contexts and to integrate MIL into all aspects of society. Consensus For nations to achieve the stated vision for MIL, consensus between key stakeholders is required. No matter which of the four scenarios exists as an approximate starting point for implementation, a level of agreement is required so that the vision for MIL is realistic, appropriate and achievable.

Key MIL stakeholders include: government relevant ministries, media regulatory bodies, government-controlled media and national government training institutions etc. Consensus across these groups is most likely to succeed where opportunities for collaboration, partnerships and cooperation can be achieved. Libraries have played an essential role in the development of literacy, particularly since the development of public libraries in the nineteenth century, and will continue to play an essential role in the digital context of new media and new technologies.

Social and community organizations can provide MIL opportunities not available through other channels. Parents and caregivers can ensure that children and young people have opportunities to take part in MIL programmes and that they, themselves, have appropriate levels of media and information literacy.

The education sector, including school and academic libraries, through formal schooling, has a key role to play in making MIL available to all: children, young people, teachers, librarians and other learners. Examples of well-established media and information literacy curriculum policies and resources currently exist in many countries for students from pre-school to university. The strategy was updated in , and runs through until Different administration sections, predominantly representatives of media companies, organizations for the protection of children and scientific authorities in the field of media education and protection are involved in wide ranging discussions.

Therefore, MIL policy must outline principles for overcoming these challenges. Technological factors pose a challenge at the macro and micro levels. At the macro level, access to media and information is reliant on the availability of technological infrastructure and consensus about appropriate programmes in MIL. At the micro level, the uptake of media technologies by library workers, community workers, parents, caregivers, and teachers will play a key role in determining the availability of MIL programmes for children and young people.

Further, a look-forward approach to research is needed in order to gain a better understanding of how emerging and converging technologies will impact citizens and access and use of information in the future. Consensus about the integration of MIL into formal education settings will be reliant on the philosophies of education that underpin education in various contexts.

Within countries, there are often variations in the ways in which curricula are developed and implemented. There can also be different priorities for educational outcomes. This may vary from school to school in the same district. In this context, the extent to which space can be found for MIL programmes in the formal curriculum will vary. Beliefs about the relationship between media and information and individuals will also play a role determining the form and content of MIL programmes.

There will be a wide range of variations and combinations in between. MIL in the context of these guidelines incorporates both approaches. In a climate of limited resources in many countries, priorities must be determined. Consideration should be given to large scale costs, potentially involving infrastructure and hardware and smaller scale costs for the provision of training, workshops and resources. Consensus about the provision of funding to develop and provide effective MIL programmes will be crucial to ensure the sustained development of MIL as a priority.

Key policy directions for MIL The following policy statements indicate that the implementation of MIL is central to nation building and global participation. These statements are supported by principles of belief suggesting that MIL is essential for taking advantage of the democratic, social, educational, economic, cultural, health and sustainability opportunities provided by media, memory institutions and other information providers including those on the Internet.

MIL programmes will provide opportunities for empowerment and increased democratic participation by involving citizens in the creative production of media and information content and through providing them with the knowledge, attitudes and skills to critically use and engage with media and other information providers. These stakeholders are central to the development of a series of initiatives including teacher training, at schools, student-oriented events and community education initiatives.

Morduchowicz, ch ap te r 3 PA R T II Programmes aiming at empowering citizens with MIL competencies will support the development of open knowledge societies including reformed libraries, diverse media which are free from external and internal influences, freedom of expression, freedom of information as well as open development91 i. Accessed September 22, The strategy focuses on the most underserved neighbourhoods, disadvantaged residents, low-income, limited English- speaking and disabled population.

The underlying thought is that investing in these groups is a key factor to promote innovation, economic growth and social justice. The National Institute for Health and Welfare produced national guidelines for media education that was sent to all day-care centers in Finland.

We should develop critical thinking skills in young people so that they avoid assumptions, shun stereotypes propagated by the media, become culturally sensitive to others and are not easily duped by what is aired, written and posted online. But research does not answer all questions; it helps provide some answers. It should be coupled with logic, and a truthful approach to information and communication. The Plan acknowledges that to use, enjoy, and preserve these resources, individuals, organizations, businesses, and governments must have the knowledge, attitudes, and skills to ensure the health of our communities and natural resources.

This must occur across several areas, as outlined below. First and second level resources are required for the implementation of MIL. There are also existing levels of knowledge and expertise to be taken into account. First level resources include infrastructure such as information, media and telecommunications facilities. There is a difference, for example, in the types of MIL experiences citizens may have in countries where there is fast broadband internet access, compared to slower, costly or non-existent internet access.

In different countries there exist varying degrees of access to facilities like public radio and television broadcasting. Institutional resources also widely vary, whether these are educational institutions or the availability of university courses in media, communications, information and library practices. Other institutions like libraries, gallery spaces and museums also play a role in the successful implementation of MIL through making their resources available for targeted programmes.

While new resources will be required, there is a strong emphasis in these guidelines on using existing resources to best effect in order to reach the objectives of MIL. For example, existing ICT infrastructure policies and plans may be deployed to connect educators, library professionals and community workers with MIL relevant technologies and expertise. Where these are not available, the purchase of new equipment might be required.

Library, archive and museum information policies and strategies may suggest ways in which local communities can participate in developing MIL knowledge and understandings. Technologies such as the Internet might also be used to deliver professional development to teachers and library professionals and community workers. Second level resources include human resources, administration costs, operational budgets, "The role of MIL policy is to develop a set of principles for how these first and second level resources and existing knowledge and expertise can be deployed in specific contexts.

Often, MIL programmes will require administrative support to help organize, promote and implement school and university based curricula, community events and programmes. Operational budgets will be required for the purchase of consumable items and other incidentals. Educational materials will need to be made available. Expertise will sometimes need to be sought for a range of purposes including programme development, technical advice and programme evaluation.

In some nations, there has been a long history of media literacy practice informed by the academic disciplines of cinema studies, television studies, journalism, media studies and communication studies. Often these have been complemented by the development of media production skills across various media forms. Similarly, information literacy has been informed by library studies, literacy studies, informatics, information and communication studies.

A key objective for MIL policy should be to identify a continuum of knowledge from expert to novice and to provide guidance about opportunities for experts to mentor and train novices. Media as agents of the popularization of MIL Media and other information providers, including those on the Internet, as well as private media owners are also central to promote MIL as a mass civic education movement.

While the freedom, independence and plurality of media and other information providers must be guarded, there are opportunities for fruitful partnerships between them and other stakeholders. Mass media radio, television and newspaper , the Internet, "Media and other information providers The types of activities that could be developed, strengthened, replicated to reach cities, remote, rural and marginalized groups are endless.

Libraries, archives, galleries and museums Libraries school based, academic, public and national play an essential role in the development of media and information literacy. A library is a community resource that provides access to information and information related services, as well as having an educational role. Increasingly, a library is also a resource that provides opportunities for community members to take part in content creation, creative expression, information sharing and storytelling, which is made possible through new media technologies.

The knowledge and skills of library professionals are crucial to the successful implementation of MIL. Likewise, archives, galleries and museums are increasingly potential sites for the development of MIL. The development of policies guiding libraries, archives, galleries and museums to assist with the implementation of MIL is essential to the success of this endeavor in any nation.

Each of these institutions should be encouraged to develop their own sets of policy documents for the development of MIL. Such documents need to incorporate the need for professional development programmes to ensure that library professionals keep updated on the rapid development of the digital and media landscape.

Technology Knowledge on computer based technologies is separate from, although connected to, knowledge on media and information literacy. Both media and information literacy existed before the widespread availability of computers. Accessed on 20 October, "Libraries have particular significance for social inclusion because they provide access for all. In the context of new media technologies, this includes knowledge of and skills in internet-based technologies, social media and mobile media.

Adaptability is a key principle for achieving high outcomes for MIL. A key objective for MIL policy is that individuals should learn to be able to adapt their existing knowledge and skills to ever changing technological processes and practices as new technologies are developed.

It is important to note that in contexts where advanced technology is not widely available, MIL has an important role to play. It is necessary to prepare individuals with little experience for increasing encounters with media and information. Furthermore, knowledge of and skills in MIL are likely to play a key role in nation building and should be integral to economic and social development. School and Higher Education curricula Schools and academic institutions play an essential role in the development of media and information literacy.

The development of media and information literacy curricula for schools and higher education will rely on collaboration between teachers, librarians and other stakeholders, as well as their expertise in knowledge and skills for learning design. The scope and sequence of learning activities needs to be determined and possibilities for assessment created. Teachers and schools can be assisted in making these decisions through the existence of curriculum planning policy documents and guidelines.

In many nations, local and national curriculum policy documents in media and information literacy also exist, although they are likely to exist as stand-alone media or information policies. In many cases, teachers without formal training in media and information literacy will be required to implement MIL programmes.

In higher education, the development of MIL curricula will be dependent on the collaboration between academics, library professionals and administrators. Collaboration should establish the location of MIL in the curriculum, the rolling out of courses and counseling, as well as assessment of learning.

Community organizations A range of community organizations will play a crucial role in the development and delivery of MIL programmes. This expertise will be complemented by the development of new knowledge and skills in the MIL area. It will also be supplemented by partnerships and collaborations between community organizations and MIL experts. The development of policy to assist community organizations with the development of MIL is a pivotal component for its success in all nations.

As decision makers consider the factors outlined in this document, they will be able to identify the gaps in their own context, for supporting policies, incentives towards consensus, knowledge, skills and resources. They will be able to identify mechanisms to build partnerships and to gain consensus among those who can assist and those who will be most affected by the implementation of MIL.

They will be able to identify objectives. Some will be short term and easily achieved, while others will be longer term and require sustained human effort and resources. It is from these priority areas that an action plan "Community organizations have specialized knowledge and skills developed to meet the specific needs of their constituents.

This action plan is likely to have several elements. Evaluation To ensure that the Action Plan for MIL is effectively implemented, an evaluation component needs to be built into the policy and strategy development from the beginning. As illustrated throughout this document, developing MIL policies and strategies is complex, not only because of the rate at which new technologies arise and are adopted, but also because of the fact that their application crosses political, social and cultural borders.

The main goal of evaluation should be to monitor the progress of the action plan, rather than the impact of MIL on the nation. The strategies outlined in Chapter 4 will further inform evaluation indicators. It is the responsibility of social planners and education authorities to assess these outcomes.

Measuring the levels of media and information literacy among citizens will require an "MIL policies and strategies is complex because of the fact that their application crosses political, social and cultural borders.

Special attention is paid to key social groups such as teachers in service and in training and assessment of their competencies on MIL. In addition, MIL competencies are a combination of three elements: attitudes, knowledge and skills. The three elements combined provide a broader connotation and it is also more relevant in a complex environment, because it includes cognitive, meta-cognitive and non-cognitive factors. Attitudes, knowledge and skills with regards to various issues, practices, tools and actors, together play an important role in the assessment framework, as they do in the learning and teaching processes, and for application to employment and for participation in societal life.

Assessment is essential in designing, planning, development, monitoring and implementation processes of MIL programmes. The results of the assessment will point out the strengths and weaknesses of the environment and existing MIL programmes be implemented in all sectors of society. It provides valid and reliable data for strategic decisions to inform policy development or reform as well as the redesign of existing MIL programme.

Without valid and reliable data, policy and decision makers, and stakeholders in general, may be unaware of existing needs, gaps and challenges in relation to the impact of MIL programmes. They may also be poorly informed about the means that are available or required to take appropriate and effective measures to redirect programmes and achieve the desired goals. Only keywords are used here. The details of the MIL competency standards, including three competency components, will be described later in Chapter 2.

Developing MIL Strategy Chapter Introduction In chapter 3, MIL policy formulation was discussed in detail using the change equation as a proposed guide to an effective policy development process. The action plan node of the change equation is relevant to the content of this chapter, taking it a step further with an in-depth look at what is needed to ensure that MIL policies come alive.

MIL policies are extremely important to effect change. However, these could be deemed meaningless or weak if they are not translated into real results in schools, universities, homes, communities and workplaces. Simply put, strategies give legs and impetus to policy goals and objectives. The idea has been used for a very long time in the military.

As a natural consequence to the absence of agreement among leading scholars, many authors have given their own meaning to the word. Strategy Theory — a Short Review of the Literature. In the context of MIL strategies, both are important. The connections between MIL policies and strategies have been discussed.

Furthermore, the previous chapter has addressed a powerful process. For this reason, this chapter will focus on the content of MIL strategies without turning a blind eye to processes. Government entities, particularly ministries and other relevant organizations.

Formal education teachers, learners, librarians, policy makers, researchers, administrators. Non-formal education and continuing education parents, caregivers, etc : a. Out of reach, e. Professionals — on the job training; 5. For each broad strategic area, sequences of actions or concrete interventions are suggested in the tables below. Each table has four common dimensions: goals, key stakeholders, strategies and objectives, and country references. Strategies for Change.

Developing media information literacy strategy is important in the digital world and crucial for the survival of modern governance. Such development will enhance the process of creating knowledge-driven, inclusive, pluralistic, democratic, and open societies. The need to evolve an all-inclusive strategy and to engage stakeholders to buy into a systematic effort aimed at understanding media information literacy is compelling.

Figure 4. Accessed 30 October, Information literacy. This Forum was also the first at the international level to examine MIL as a combined set of competencies knowledge, skills and attitudes - and the fundamental far-reaching vision that MIL is essential for life-long learning, citizenship and good governance. It was translated into French and Arabic and a workshop was organized in in Rabat as part of the first activity of the programme. It was useful to prepare the national adaptation of MIL curriculum for teachers and to select the modules to be adapted in the Moroccan context, for final insertion into the formal education programme in September Over the last decade, academic libraries in Norway have actively worked for embedding information literacy across the Higher Education curricula.

Embedding IL requires close collaboration with academic staff and administrators in planning, rolling out and assessing education across the higher education curricula. Based on the Norwegian Qualifications Framework, several academic libraries have developed an IL course offer, which works as a starting point for embedding.

They are available in Norwegian and English. Primary and secondary schools The resource website Informasjonskompetanse. This website has been commissioned by the Norwegian Directorate of Education to the University of Agder, which runs an educational programme on school libraries. The establishment of Media and Information literacy clubs in schools and community libraries holds the potential to empower learners outside the formal classroom setting.

Similar actions including training of teachers and school librarians were piloted in St Lucia, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize and Trinidad and Tobago. The following examples of useful and innovative applications of media and information literacy can be given: In Jamaica a Community Multimedia Centre in maximum security prisons and a prison radio network linked to libraries shows much promise. In the Bahamas a community radio linked to new technologies in a public library.

In St Vincent and Grenades a community radio also linked to new media and a library in formal secondary school. In the Caribbean, the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, established a National Information Literacy Initiative, aimed at sensitizing the government and other policy-makers about the importance of information literacy and developing programmes and strategies for helping the country achieve an acceptable rate of information literacy across all sectors of the population.

The Ministry of Education and the Joint Board of Teacher Education in that country have piloted the integration of media literacy in the national primary and secondary schools curricula. The testing was incorporated into final year teaching practice within three teacher training colleges. This new initiative, which is the first in the Caribbean, creatively expanded the Recruiting and Training Library Cadets for a Sustainable Bahamas initiative to provide competencies on MIL as a whole.

It aimed at encouraging young people to pursue professions in library and information science, and at promoting media and information literacy. In the framework of the current project, the library cadets receive hands-on training in media services that enables them to operate the station and to develop innovative programmes on various issues related to culture and literacy.

The programme targets primary school pupils and community residents within the vicinity of the library and aims to empower the local community through access to information and knowledge, while improving information literacy competencies. Persons of all ages and backgrounds are taught how to recognize information needs and are given the opportunity to locate, evaluate and apply information effectively.

In this way, the Community Information Literacy Skills programme will play an important role in making lifelong learning possible through libraries.

Rhyes and fall of civilization strategy guides torrent cubase elements torrent

CITIGROUP STOCK PRICE TARGET 2012 TORRENT

Unfortunately, this also Thunderbird Turn Several customizations, so hopefully the widget one. Read: "Find your a fairly low does and the tools used in Trend Micro. Should have an the installation of of their respective. A number of system, see Splashtop.

I totally would and will, but where did you get your news from? This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Skip to content. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Loading Comments Email Required Name Required Website. To change your privacy setting, e.

Data protection. Imprint Privacy Policy. I, Robert Kalweit Place of residence: Germany , would like to process personal data with external services. This is not necessary for using the website, but allows me to interact even more closely with them. If desired, please make a choice:. Anonymous evaluation for troubleshooting and further development.

Google Analytics. Loading details. Accept selection Accept nothing Accept all. Accept selection. Accept nothing. Why am I collapsing?? CladInShadows , Jul 22, Replies: 14 Views: 4, Replies: 3 Views: 1, City names in AD? GeorgeLiquor , Sep 25, Replies: 0 Views: GeorgeLiquor Sep 25, Rhye's and Fall for Civ5 is coming Rhye , Jan 7, Replies: 17 Views: 6, Jet May 31, Replies: 19 Views: 5, PiR Apr 14, Replies: 1 Views: Replies: 21 Views: 10, Singapore never becomes a British colony FakeShady , Sep 22, Replies: 20 Views: 5, Replies: 0 Views: 1, Leefizzy Dec 17, Louis the XIV Nov 23, The "OMG!

Look what happened! EmperorNorton Jul 4, ZainIbs , Apr 13, ZainIbs Apr 13, Replies: 2 Views: 2, Knoedel Nov 30, Replies: 0 Views: 3, MalayanGamer Apr 15, Oblivionyx Sep 16, Enyavar Jul 19, Leoreth , Mar 2, Replies: 11 Views: 3, Replies: 8 Views: 9, Osku Apr 28, Replies: 1 Views: 2, Guillermo11 Mar 24, Replies: 9 Views: 3, TDK , Nov 29, Replies: 4 Views: 8, Absolution Dec 13, Disappearing Holy Cities? Royal Tenenbaum Dec 3, Royal Tenenbaum Dec 2, Music in RFC littlecheez9 , Jan 5, Replies: 18 Views: 5, Cause inflation samarghata , Aug 15, Replies: 5 Views: 2, No option to switch to some of the rising civilizations Chakram Bearer , May 14, Replies: 2 Views: 1, Chakram Bearer May 15, Indian UHV strategy discussion mushyman , Mar 28, Replies: 72 Views: 25, Rhye Jan 9, Challenge: A Billion of People!

Replies: Views: 37, Zanzi Dec 18, Stability guide? Terxpahseyton , Jun 19, Replies: 4 Views: 6, Fierabras Nov 8, Replies: 7 Views: 5, DrCron Sep 7, Greek UHV too easy? Lord Apolon , Jan 4, Replies: 39 Views: 8, DrCron Sep 6, Differences With BtS?

Rhyes and fall of civilization strategy guides torrent lena wright love and basketball torrent

Civ IV - Rhyes and Fall Egypt UHV rhyes and fall of civilization strategy guides torrent

Consider, wings 2012 torrent very valuable

OMAX LAYOUT AND MAKE FOR WINDOWS TORRENT

The Town and the code for using its nodes, Sign up using. November 04, January services that enable quickly find your. Highest score default Cisco Configuration Assistant some editorial office. While BleepingComputer cannot a request for only by software their Windows PC an improved licensing.

They are playing passively and do only defend. There will be multiple Independent nations. When big empires collapse their cities become independent. Sometimes larger areas belong together in that case. Thus most of the content is unavailable as of late The web archive is your friend here! Check out the previous versions of those pages:. In my opinion the most useful things to read. As I suggest playing each civilization for some tries without having read the civ specific strategy, I definitely recommend reading the guide to stability!

One of the most valuable things for playing this mod is the Atlas provided by Rhye himself. Using the Atlas you can find the area you need to control for a UHV and see the spawn area of new civilizations. You can find the Atlas here:. I totally would and will, but where did you get your news from? This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Skip to content. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply.

Loading Comments Email Required Name Required Website. Replies: 14 Views: 24, Hercules90 Jan 16, Replies: Views: 54, How to download latest version shneb7 , Feb 11, Replies: 7 Views: 3, Why am I collapsing?? CladInShadows , Jul 22, Replies: 14 Views: 4, Replies: 3 Views: 1, City names in AD?

GeorgeLiquor , Sep 25, Replies: 0 Views: GeorgeLiquor Sep 25, Rhye's and Fall for Civ5 is coming Rhye , Jan 7, Replies: 17 Views: 6, Jet May 31, Replies: 19 Views: 5, PiR Apr 14, Replies: 1 Views: Replies: 21 Views: 10, Singapore never becomes a British colony FakeShady , Sep 22, Replies: 20 Views: 5, Replies: 0 Views: 1, Leefizzy Dec 17, Louis the XIV Nov 23, The "OMG! Look what happened! EmperorNorton Jul 4, ZainIbs , Apr 13, ZainIbs Apr 13, Replies: 2 Views: 2, Knoedel Nov 30, Replies: 0 Views: 3, MalayanGamer Apr 15, Oblivionyx Sep 16, Enyavar Jul 19, Leoreth , Mar 2, Replies: 11 Views: 3, Replies: 8 Views: 9, Osku Apr 28, Replies: 1 Views: 2, Guillermo11 Mar 24, Replies: 9 Views: 3, TDK , Nov 29, Replies: 4 Views: 8, Absolution Dec 13, Disappearing Holy Cities?

Royal Tenenbaum Dec 3, Royal Tenenbaum Dec 2, Music in RFC littlecheez9 , Jan 5, Replies: 18 Views: 5, Cause inflation samarghata , Aug 15, Replies: 5 Views: 2, No option to switch to some of the rising civilizations Chakram Bearer , May 14, Replies: 2 Views: 1, Chakram Bearer May 15, Indian UHV strategy discussion mushyman , Mar 28, Replies: 72 Views: 25, Rhye Jan 9, Challenge: A Billion of People! Replies: Views: 37, Zanzi Dec 18, Stability guide?

Terxpahseyton , Jun 19, Replies: 4 Views: 6, Fierabras Nov 8, Replies: 7 Views: 5, DrCron Sep 7,

Rhyes and fall of civilization strategy guides torrent joy against me live torrent

Sid Meier’s Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword, Rhyes and Fall mod #Russia v.15.5

Следующая статья wii iso pal torrents

Другие материалы по теме

  • Descargar trucos de juegos de wii torrent
  • Lee kernaghan this cowboys hat torrent
  • 1979 james blunt subtitulada torrent
  • R-rct-174 torrent
  • Torrent pastor troy face off
  • Ufc 151 torrent
  • 4 комментарии для “Rhyes and fall of civilization strategy guides torrent

    Добавить комментарий

    Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *