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There is also increased talk of the integration of military and civilian technologies. In hindsight it appears that the words of Alexander Goltz were prophetic—that only a solution reached by civilian society not a solution offered by general officers protecting their realm could offer a profound resolution to the problem It took the Medvedev, Putin, Serdyukov triumvirate to get the process underway.

The institute, a marble structure of four stories on University Square 14 in the Lenin Hills area of Moscow, houses historically rich texts that contain the essence of Russian military culture and traditions. Access to the building is controlled today, much as it was during Soviet times.

When the era of glasnost openness and perestroika new thinking came to fruition in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR under the rule of then Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev in the late s and early s, things were different. Access to the History Institute was somewhat easier to achieve and some of its military-historical publications began to see the light of day. Many of the topics that these publications addressed had lain dormant since On occasion, foreigners were presented with military-historical manuscripts and essays that included works on military traditions.

As perestroika unfolded, other avenues became available to collect Russian military traditions. Bookstores also began to offer new works on military traditions. Traditions were vitally important in reviving the dignity and honor of the Russian military once the ideology of communism faded and the country fell into temporary chaos in There were times in the early s when Russian Lieutenant Colonels working in the General Staff were spotted in the subways of Moscow shining shoes to gain extra money.

Thankfully Russian officers tolerated and survived these conditions instead of taking matters into their own hands. Perhaps tradition played a role that prevented such events from transpiring. On the other hand, Russia may have lost one of its most important military minds, Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergei F. As he saw the Motherland swept away in his view from its Communist heritage and into the hands of a new ideology and regime, he took his own life by hanging in his Kremlin office, perhaps for his inability to defend his people from what he considered an attack on the entire system.

Such was his concept of honor. This chapter will discuss the military traditions and culture of the Russian and Soviet militaries and how they have changed over time. Old Russian military traditions, Soviet military traditions, and New Russian military traditions are compared and contrasted from a limited number of Russian texts.

Of particular interest is the writing of military analysts in the period when traditions and culture were changing definitions of key terms are presented such as military tradition, military culture, and cultural- educational work are attached at Appendix Two. The ardent student of Russian affairs will be somewhat disappointed in the scarce number of resources utilized for this chapter. Of course, these were all Russian resources so there is no intermediate filter of, say, a Western interpretation.

In total, while a host of journal and encyclopedia articles were accessed, only four books were used extensively. V Tsvetkova and N. V Domnin, A. Bykova, A. Belova, Edited by A E. Savinkin, However, it is believed that even this truncated overview distills for the reader what is most important for the Russian officer of today. The authors are well-known and respected and the journals utilized were all refereed by military professionals. As Russia moves forward in the twenty-first century, it will be interesting to watch the effect of the reform effort of Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov and see if his efforts reinvigorate discussions of military tradition.

If they do, it will be interesting to see which traditions are kept and which are discarded. Some of these traditions have been part of the Russian military since the earliest days of Tsarist history Other aspects have developed over time. It is much shorter than its Red Army and Soviet predecessors in the latter case, from to 41 words and states I, last name, first name, middle name solemnly pledge my loyalty to my homeland—the Russian Federation.

I swear to sacredly observe its constitution and laws, strictly fulfill the demands of military regulations and the orders of commanders and superiors. I swear to appropriately fulfill my military duty and to bravely defend the freedom, independence, and constitutional order of Russia, the nation, and Fatherland!

They are listed here as a source of contemporary informal traditions before delving into the more formal aspects of Russian military traditions. A tradition familiar to any US officer who has shared a drink of vodka with a Russian officer is their tradition of military toasts. We drink to our fathers and grand fathers, who did their soldiering well. We drink to those who right now are out in the minefields, on maneuvers, and performing combat tasks and their duty.

The fourth toast is to the ladies. In fact, every third toast thereafter is to the ladies. With grams of vodka in your stomach at this point 50 grams a shot , the remaining toasts and there are no limits on the number give way to greater creativity embracing an entire host of issues.

Drinking vodka is also associated with promotions and holidays. Promotions are especially noteworthy as a drinking tradition. When promoted, an officer is handed a glass of vodka with the new rank lying at the bottom of the glass. The officer must drink the vodka, catch the rank in his teeth, and without touching it, gently spit it out on his epaulet.

If it falls off, he has to perform the process to include the drinking! There are several traditions associated with avoiding bad luck, particularly in the Russian Navy. When torpedoes exploded in their tubes onboard the submarine Kursk, causing it to sink and result in the loss of life of all aboard, two elements of bad luck were listed in a newspaper article as potential causes of the tragedy One was that a man instead of a woman had christened the submarine, and another was that a chain broke on a censer that a Priest was using to bless the submarine.

When officers enter a work area for the first time, they go around the room and shake hands with everyone before starting their work. A final informal tradition observed by US officers who have conducted staff work with the Russians is the precision of their graphic art work on a map. In all sincerity, the graphics appear to have been printed by a machine rather than a human, they are that precise. Historical Traditions Luckily, the military history and traditions of Russia are synonymous with three elements of national history: Tsarist, Imperial, or pre-Soviet; Soviet; and post-Soviet, which could also be termed Old Russian, Soviet Russian, and New Russian military history.

The old Russian military history period up to was highlighted by the exploits of great military leaders such as Peter the Great, Aleksander V Suvorov, and Mikhail I. The Soviet- Russian period was highlighted by the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism and the work of some truly original and giant military theorists and commanders such as Aleksander A. Svechin, Mikhail H. Tukachevsky, Vladimir K. Triandafillov, and Nikolay V Ogarkov.

Today, we await the next great generation of Russian military thinkers. These theorists are likely quietly germinating in the bowels of the General Staff today but will only be visible to outsiders after their theories have taken root. Gareev, who developed the concept of the operational maneuver group OMG ,[45J are still alive today and most likely are contributing to the development of new officers.

Both are used to mean Homeland by Russian authors. Otechesvo is sometimes translated as Fatherland and even, in its adjectival form, as patriotic such as in its use to mean the Great Patriotic War or World War II. It has a wider meaning than Rodina, the latter sometimes translated as Motherland. Rodina can also mean your local village or place of birth. Russian authors tend to alternate between the uses of these two terms.

This author will use the terms interchangeably in conjunction with the usage of the terms by the authors he cites. What follows are three general sections. The first section discusses Tsarist traditions. The second section discusses Soviet traditions.

The third section discusses contemporary Russian military traditions. More likely the book was completed before the fall of the USSR and simply was awaiting publication. The more time passes, the more we appreciate the significance of their great accomplishments in defense of the Fatherland. Today [] we remember with pride the Russian generals and officers who sought the most effective ways to raise the morale and therefore also the combat capability of the army.

Lobov, who would become the Chief of the General Staff of Russia in September of , concentrated his attention solely on Tsarist, not Soviet, military figures and broke his book into three sections: the eighteenth century and first half of the nineteenth century; the second half of the nineteenth century; and the start of the twentieth century. The book is rather narrowly focused on the concepts of duty and honor, although other traditions are touched upon.

These traditions became the carriers of patriotic ideas. He who offends duty, honor, and the oath Old Russia will see as the worst enemy. These leaders of renown are listed below with important points that Lobov attributed to each. This list undoubtedly, to a US officer, sounds much like the traits that American officers stress.

Perhaps this tradition is a rite of passage into manhood for the military ranks, but it has as much resemblance to a Lord of the Flies [50] scenario as it does to manhood. Recent reports of soldiers being required to perform sex acts with homosexuals for some military leaders a limited number, for sure attest that the treatment of soldiers has taken on a more dysfunctional form than ever imaginable.

They have witnessed corruption at the top of the military brass several leaders have been arrested in recent months and some of the younger officers are upset by the overweight condition of several high ranking officers. Perhaps Western military experts will question just who he chose to include and who he left out of his introduction, but the work does appear to be fairly comprehensive. Words in quotation marks are direct quotes from one of these leaders.

Peter the Great. He demonstrated concern for Fatherland defenders and paid special attention to the relationship between officers and soldiers. He also attached importance to moral education, believing that high moral principles depend on discipline. Finally, Peter believed that officers should be of high moral character and fighting spirit. Company officers should seek out opportunities to speak with the lower ranks and convince them that if they profess and obey all orders well, they will be able to do everything in a most praiseworthy fashion.

Soldiers should be protected from inhuman floggings. Rumyantsev believed that officer and soldierly honor were the supreme manifestation of all the virtues of a military person. He opposed everything formal and pretentious. Generalissimus : Suvorov believed that success in battle depended not so much on the number of soldiers as on their morale. He felt the Russian soldier was capable of courage and heroism and he could mobilize these characteristics in troops. He started first with himself, with the education of the commander-educator.

Suvorov demanded that subordinates exhibit great initiative and rely on themselves, the basis of courage. Russian soldiers displayed enormous courage, heroism, and valor in the War of and this impacted on troop education. Only a few blows can make an innocent soldier loath with spite, the journal wrote.

Strength is needed but so is greater knowledge and valor. Vladimir Kornilov and Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov Nakhimov stressed personal example and often gave orders from the most open and dangerous spots. His training system took into consideration historical realities of the Russian army, unique Russian national traits, and the latest achievements of military-theoretical thought.

He believed that the military had more to do with will than intellect and thus stressed moral educational objectives: instill fighting spirit, patriotism, and discipline. In wartime this closeness will serve as the internal bonding in the army that makes its self- sacrifice boundless; an army in which officers enjoy the soldiers trust has on its side an advantage that cannot be gained through numbers, sophisticated materiel, or anything else.

General : Skobelev focused on the moral education of officers and soldiers, much like Dragomirov. He was for iron discipline but against the application of physical force or the humiliation of soldiers. Discipline should be attained through moral authority, not a beating. His ideas were meant to foster mutual respect, mutual assistance, courage, and initiative in officers and soldiers. He suggested his willingness at decisive moments to sacrifice everything for comrades.

General Major : Grulev stressed the moral-ethical relationship between officers and soldiers and troop fighting spirit. They were: Josip Gurko They were not fearless but rather just undistinguished people. Without these moral qualities it is inconceivable to be a defender of the Fatherland. There were some in the officer corps, Lobov notes, who supported a different type of educational system, one based on severe punishments and a love of parades and drill.

Soldiers serve the Russian nation, not the emperor, as Peter the Great noted. Later, Peter refused to hire mercenaries, since they were the first to surrender to the Swedes at Narva. Peter only recruited native Russians to ensure a reliable source of men for the army and navy. This increased the homogeneity socially, nationally, religiously of the force and improved morale.

The community peasant-commune had deep roots as well in the Russian army, as the names of many regiments Orlov, Kozel, Tver, etc. Frederick Engels, for example, explained the deep rooted base for courage and self-sacrifice in the Russian soldier this way: The Russian soldier is indisputably very courageous. He was in his element as long as the tactical mission called for an attack by an infantry army operating in close formation.

His entire life experience had taught him to hold on tight to his comrades. This trait remains in Russia in the military as well; it is virtually impossible to break up a battalion of Russians; the graver the danger, the more tightly they come together into a single compact whole. Lobov stressed that military might was dependent on how military education was progressing. In particular, he discussed how the Russian defeat in the Crimean War led to a transformation of the education system. He felt there was a direct relation between military might and soldier education.

Fighting spirit, he wrote, is present in an army only when that spirit is present in the people. Treskin no rank provided. These officers wrote about a number of problems affecting the Russian army at the time. Just as at the end of the 18 th century, the end of the 19 th century also witnessed a struggle between progressive forces and officers beset with what Lobov termed ignorance, narrow-mindedness, and a bureaucratic spirit in regard to troop training and education.

Those who did enter the service at the time often reflected problems inherent in society, so not all new officers were worthy of their duty. Problems included lack of initiative and the passive role of command staffs. It has absorbed and further developed all that is best, progressive, and valuable from the combat traditions of the Russian army and navy.

As a result, talk of traditions faded. For example, in a review of the contents of three books , , and bearing the same title, on Partivno-Politicheskava Rabota v Sovetskoy Armii i Voenno- Morshorn Flote t Party-Political Work in the Soviet Army and Navy , where military traditions might arise, the topic appeared only in the book.

Of course, many Tsarist military traditions were also housed in the History Institute mentioned at the start of this chapter. I want to kneel down whenever I say that word. This occurred during the civil war, the revolution, and during the time of foreign intervention. Honesty in relationships is required. There is no place for self-complacency and no marking time in the military. Increasingly military authors returned to their roots and military heritage, the works of the Imperial armed forces and renowned military leaders.

In this sense, they were inviting the military to take the lead and protect all that had been achieved for Russia and the USSR over the course of history. It is not known, of course, whether Rash or Prokhanov influenced him or other officers during this period. Yazov, to open his piece. All of these traits must move to the forefront. Kovalevskiy believes culture is intertwined with competency. He notes that: General culture includes a well-grounded knowledge of history, philosophy, political science, and law and presumes mastery of the riches of world and domestic literature, music, painting, and the theater and the ability to distinguish genuine spiritual values from counterfeits.

One can judge general culture from whether or not an officer has a need to read the classics of literature, whether or not he sees the depth in works of Homer, A. Dante, W. Shakespeare, A. Pushkin, L. Tolstoy, and F.

Dostoyevskiy, and whether or not he experiences pleasure from the music of J. Bach, L. Beethoven, M. Mussorgsky, P. Tchaikovsky, and G. Tolstoy and Dostoyevskiy are two such examples. This intense general cultural background is then subordinated to serving the Fatherland. An officer subculture includes a professional lexicon, folklore, holidays, and everyday signs and prejudices. He notes that Officer Meetings were one such tradition whose reestablishment continues a custom that is over years old.

It is incompatible with a bureaucratically indifferent attitude toward subordinates, unprincipled pushiness, and subservience. Even a slight breach of honor could result in expulsion from the unit. Suvorov, Kutuzov, Ushakov, and Nakhimov were singled out as progressive thinkers who cared about the soldier even if the Tsar did not and so they developed their own military traditions. Valeev spared no amount of criticism for Soviet era officers either. The revival of military honor during perestroika and the late s, to Valeev, occurred at a December All-Service Officers Conference in Moscow.

Valeev noted that a short course on the fundamentals of ethics was taught in only 10 of over military schools at the time. Realistically, Valeev wrote that honor cannot be reproduced in oneself in a stable condition for long. When one suffers, one needs positive evaluation.

Since an officer is a reflection of society, he has a right to count on recognition of the useful nature of his labor, and on material, legal, and moral support of his dignity and honor. Perhaps this is the situation that influenced Marshall Akhromeev to take his own life. His dignity and honor were no longer supported by society in the early days of the s. For example, how can a young officer maintain his honor when his commanding officer has control of his military rank, pay, working conditions, apartment, nursery, travel orders, summer leave, honors, incentives, punishments, and more according to Valeev?

The military requires deep democratization of relationships, the development of culture and etiquette, regulations and social standards, and rituals of the defense of honor. Faintheartedness and cowardice must be alien to the officer. What would the new Russian army look like, what uniforms would it wear, and what flag would it honor? In short, what traditions would it uphold? Russian leaders had to work to bring back a sense of personal honor into the officer corps after Boris Yeltsin replaced Gorbachev as President.

However this attempt did not last long. One officer stood his ground, however, in this chain of escalating events. General Eduard Vorobyev, deputy commander of the ground forces, declined to participate in events in Chechnya, citing the armed forces unpreparedness to enter battle. In this way he was reenergizing an old Russian military tradition of telling the commanding officer the truth he may not want to hear.

After the horrific start to combat operations in Chechnya in December of , the armed forces were exposed as undernourished, underpaid, untrained, and impoverished. The prestige of military service diminished even further. During the reign of Boris Yeltsin, many military traditions were laid aside. General Pavel Grachev came to be the Minister of Defense out of loyalty to Boris Yeltsin and not due to his military professionalism according to many estimates both inside and outside Russia.

Several officers became members of Parliament and participated directly in political affairs while on active duty. Officers wrote books about their political views. Still, there were signs of a return to the old military traditions of the Imperial Russian Armed Forces. Burlakov who recently passed away provided one of the more interesting early looks at Russian military traditions in the post-Soviet period.

It was the close unity of the army and the people forged through many years that he hoped to get back on track. It must take on the traditions of the past, love of the Fatherland, and an understanding of military honor and dignity. Burlakov reminded readers that for centuries people have tried to deprive Russia of its independence.

For this reason the history of Russia is above all its military history. Burlakov wrote that traditions are historically shaped customs and rules of behavior handed down from generation to generation. They eventually become voluntarily observed rules. The most important of these combat traditions is the special attitude and unconditional service of the people and the army to their nation which again explains why Burlakov was so upset over the break in this link.

He added that Another tradition is extreme tenacity in defensive positions. Russian fanatics defended these two Russian cities in a manner that proved tenacity to be a national trait. Russians do not give up. Tenacity, perseverance and valor in battle, and sacrifice all carry on the Russian tradition of mass heroism and not heroism as understood in the West, which is more like individual heroism or an exception to the rule. You will never see in a Russian soldier bragging, bravado, or a desire to become intoxicated or hot headed when in danger; on the contrary, modesty, humbleness, and the ability to see in danger something quite different from danger are his distinctive traits.

Russian soldiers fought over banners with glory going to the soldier who could capture an enemy banner. When unfurled in the thick of fighting, a Russian banner had the effect of blessing its soldiers and thus inciting new strength in them.

Finally, Burlakov notes that the Russian military has always paid strict attention to honor, dignity, and duty. This text was printed for the Russian Military University, indicating that it has value for the Ministry of Defense since the university is the source of military teaching in the following areas: law, psychology, socialism, linguistics, and journalism, among other topics.

The university is preparing people to be qualified in sociology, to be a specialist in social work, or to be a manager or specialist in social-cultural activities associated with the armed forces. It was written and published during the early-mid years of the Yeltsin administration in Russia when it was easier to offer opinions on new or even forgotten topics that were taboo under the Soviet regime.

More importantly, the book was authored by emigres who had left Russia during the Soviet regime. Therefore their opinions are more strictly old-Russia based. While the Whites may have lost the civil war, the soul of the Russian army did not perish but lived on in two places: in the underground within the ranks of the Red Army and in the military emigre community.

The most important part of this legacy was that the spiritual dominates the material. The spirit of the army can be defined as the synthesis of every aspect of the army Krasnov used it to mean military psychology and equated it in one instance to the military banner. Popov, I. Patronov, and V Sigarev used it to mean military discipline. Messner and A. Moral virtues comprise the spirit of the army.

Martial spirit is one of the central moral and psychological foundations of the Russian army. This requires work in individual psychology and in collective military psychology. It includes rituals, beliefs, and ways of reasoning and acting handed down over generations.

These include self- sacrificing love of the Fatherland; love of history; dedication to the oath and the banner; and helping comrades even if it means your own death. For emigres this understanding was expressed more through practice than theory.

An army must be armed both ideologically and psychologically. Messner felt that social theaters of war were just as important as military operations during the Russian civil war, where feelings, impressions, passions, enchantment, and moods ruled over detached logic and mental calculations. Others noted that to prepare for small-scale wars politics must assist with ideological, political, propaganda, and social aspects of conducting this campaign, again a predominantly psychological way of preparation.

In the Soviet Union there were great leaps in the development of military psychology and pedagogy in the s and s, in the power of the Communist Party, in atheism, and in the inculcation of internationalism into the Red Army; the military emigration in contrast supported a consistent, continuous development of the spiritual aspects of military practice, and preached a non-party, religious, national-historical formation of the soul of the future Russian armed forces.

There have been other journals that focused on social issues in the military. Only a very limited number of sources since will be listed here. They represent components of tradition-type topics covered by the journal Military Thought.

Most of the topics fit the general discussion of Russian military tradition that has been ongoing for centuries spirit, discipline, reform, self-development, moral, patriotism, etc. Issue 2, included A. Since this article appeared in this unique publication, it will be used to look at the progress that traditions have made as Russia approached For example, the point is made about young people that The overwhelming majority of them wear jeans, raising the question as to whether this is a sign of culture or of mental lameness.

Probably the latter, for there are no analogies in history of a country voluntarily and on a large scale wearing slave dress jeans are slave dress; there is no other way to regard them. He also calls for vigilance in times of political tranquility and an end to the present-day neglect of the army. Fancy laurels should not be chased and a commander should go about his duty bravely and resolutely. We do not know how to sit or stand or give way.

We take liberties with the classics, with the past, with authority, and with the foundations. Our expression is one of either solemnity or the giggles. We mock all that is lofty and thereby continually destroy it, for irony is always familiar; it always watches surreptitiously, always upwards, and is always destructive..

When our grandfathers called a young man or even a teenager by his name and patronymic, they were protecting, elevating, and connecting him to the adult world, preparing him, as it were, for imminent responsibilities. If we cannot, he notes, then Russians like him must hold themselves accountable for the future of the nation. He passes over coup attempts, dedovshchina, corruption in the force, and other issues without mention.

In , Krasnaya Zvezda RedStar published what may be the most up-to-date understanding of books and films that impact current Russian armed forces traditions. Emigre N. In other areas of military traditions, Russia and the US differ. One major difference is in the Russian and US understanding of caring for the soldiers under their command.

Disregarding years of warning signs, the tradition continues under the current regime in Russia indicating that Serdyukov still has much work ahead of him. The analysis also demonstrated some proximity in the military traditions of the Imperial Russian armed forces and those of the Soviet era. Old Russia: Suvorov believed that success in battle depended not so much on the number of soldiers as on their morale; he felt the Russian soldier was capable of courage and heroism and he could mobilize these characteristics in troops.

Kutuzov felt Russian soldiers displayed enormous courage, heroism, and valor in the War of The community peasant- commune had deep roots in the Russian community as the names of many regiments Orlov, Kozel, Tver, etc. There is no place for self complacency and no marking time in the military. Old Russia: Suvorov demanded continuous and ceaseless self-education.

That brings us to the present. The unfortunate tradition of dedovshchina lives on when it should have been extinguished in the Soviet era. It exposes Soviet era propaganda as hypocritical regarding the benefits of socialism. Russian society is not this way. People go out of their way to help one another, especially their fellow citizens. Conclusion This survey of Russian military traditions has been, to be frank, brief and focused on a few select sources.

It did not encompass a host of authors and opinions, and readers should take that point away —this is an analysis that only scratches the surface of what is happening in the Russian armed forces as it picks its way into the 21 st century. The Russian army is handling a host of problems that require its attention—housing, contract service, reforms, the war in Chechnya, modernizing its information age force, and developing a military doctrine consistent with an ever-changing global environment.

As a result the military has other issues to handle in the immediate future. Traditions will develop over time. The military began to experience some success in Chechnya and pay and housing issues received priority. Tactically, strategically, and organizationally, the Russian military appeared to be on track. The military-industrial complex, which had been in disarray in the s, began to function again.

However, this does not mean all is well. It is still not certain, from the standpoint of traditions, what shape the armed forces will finally take. What is obvious is that there is something old and something new in the traditions that have been picked up and these traditions are helping to form the military culture of this generation of Russian officers. There is a mix of informal and formal traditions. If the Russian military abides by the guidance set by generations that have gone before them, they will be talented and savvy officers capable of confronting any challenge.

Or are we asking the wrong question? Are very few things lacking, and what we are witnessing is simply a union of Old Russian and Soviet Russian traditions? Regardless, there still appears to be a tilt in tradition toward the Soviet direction. For example, Old Russian units Pavlovskiy, etc. New Russian medals almost look the same as Soviet medals. The glorious past is still recognized as the Soviet past, focusing heavily on World War II achievements. This is not really that unexpected, as we are always most interested in either our immediate past or the past in which we participated.

This atmosphere will last at least into the next two decades in Russia. The officers involved in the Afghanistan, Chechen, and Georgian conflicts are bound to exert their own imprint on Russian military tradition. The central combat traditions in the Russian Armed Forces are: fidelity to the military oath and military duty, allegiance to the Homeland, courage and heroism in its defense, esprit de corps, defense of the commander in battle, and others.

Along with those that are common to the Armed Forces, there are combat traditions for branches and arms of the service, forces, units, and ships. Combat traditions serve the goal of, and are a key tool for, fostering high moral and combat quality in the military. Soldier, be proud of serving in your branch, arm, force or unit! Exhibitions of fiction and memoirs devoted to the key events of the Great Patriotic War at unit and garrison libraries 5.

Ceremonial presentation of the Colors new design to formations and units of the Russian Federation Armed Forces 7. Opening of the Victory Hall at the Central Museum of the Armed Forces with exhibition of original Banners of Victory: completion of the installation of special display cases with climate control; ceremonial opening of the exposition. Defender of the Fatherland Day ceremonies in forces, formations, and units Weekly publication of radio newspapers by unit broadcasting centers with information on events of the Great Patriotic War and the participation of the force unit in combat operations, and reading of excerpts from books on the Great Patriotic War and recollections of veterans Amateur performer competitions in formations units with a final concert marking Victory Day in the Great Patriotic War Organization of the clean-up of monuments, commemorative signs, and burial sites of soldiers who perished in fighting and battles of the Great Patriotic War Chkalov, G.

Baidukov and A. It is highly doubtful that this influence will ever be totally erased from Russian military thinking. It is thus imperative that this work include a few samples from the Soviet era archives of military thought. This chapter examines two examples of these works.

Gaivoronsky and M. Parts of it were most likely written during the Soviet period. The book explains in detail the theory and development of military thought from Soviet times up to The officers, Colonel General F. This necessitated a much more active, creative search in developing strategy, tactics, and command and control; improving methods for political and combat training of military forces, units, and ships; making ideological and political-educational work more effectual; and strengthening military discipline, that is, everything that makes our defense qualitatively more effective.

Problems must be solved without a direct reliance on practical experience gained in warfare. Military leaders must make judgments based on field tests of some weapons. The war against Afghan insurgents was their most recent experience and it was not a high-tech versus high-tech type of conflict. These topics include future war, military traditions, and high-technology applications to military affairs. It immeasurably expands human cognitive abilities and ensures that knowledge is received about the qualities of an object that are not accessible to sensory perception.

The actual tool of thought is made up of concepts and judgments expressed as language instead of sensory or perception images. Cogitation enables a human to view battle as a complex, organized, managed process thanks to the speed and accuracy of our perceptive processes. The dynamics of a situation must also be envisioned!

The military-technical content of military thought reflects the firing and tactical aspects of weapons and material and the nature of the military operations that derive from them. It also encourages creative thought, good morale, psychological preparedness, and the desire to fight under extreme conditions.

This includes placing commanders in dangerous situations in peacetime training to form psychological readiness for any test before them in real battle. Creativity is required since military operations are dynamic, include abrupt and sometimes unexpected situations, require independent and proactive decisions and a knack for risk taking, and possess potential communications disruptions and other critical junctures! Military art is defined as the fusion of creative thinking and effective practical activity.

What is required is the unity of the logical and the unconscious, of the exact calculation and the epiphany. Thus defense budgets or levels of science and technology are objective factors while their manipulation in favor of friendly forces would be the subjective application of knowledge.

Objective factors have undergone serious disruptions with the introduction of new weapons. Creative thought requires a certain amount of knowledge about the reality of a situation, personal experience in resolving similar issues, a desire to get to the truth, and some intuition such as sudden or conceptual insight, a premonition, special hunch, revelation, epiphany, etc. A creative imagination is a prerequisite for developing new thought or images of what does not exist in reality.

This requires analysis, synthesis, generalization, and other thought processes as the logical means to realize the interaction of the objective and subjective. They noted that thought is linked to practice and interacts with the laws of the objective world. Intuition is expressed as sudden analogies, associations, and fantasy in instantaneous recognition of objects and processes and a hunch about their future! The ability to foresee events prevents catastrophic outcomes and invisible consequences.

For foresight to become a reality, both objective and subjective criteria must be understood. Knowledge of the concrete and general patterns of armed combat and military art must be understood. Situations with which a commander must deal are divided into two groups: natural and technical factors, and human factors. Foresight also includes how conventionally the contending sides act and the extent to which they use stratagem, operational and tactical camouflage, and disinformation.

Unlike dialectical logic, formal logic is limited to formulating the laws and rules by which ideas follow each other logically. There are four laws that the authors identified: the law of identity, the law of contradiction, the law of the excluded middle, and the law of sufficient grounds.

The law is intended to counter pointless and nebulous discourse. It is necessary to redefine an object as it changes, shifts to a new quality, is found to have new properties, or deepens our knowledge of an object. There is no contradiction if varying times in development or such other properties, links, or relations are used.

The law requires that all assertions about a phenomenon be proven. Both the thesis and the reasons must be fully substantiated. Dialectical and formal logic act in unity in which dialectical logic plays the leading role. The issue of concept includes the content, scope, features, ideas, and judgments contained in military thought. Establishing essential features means comparing the concept with objective reality.

An idea is expressed in the form of a combination of concepts, thereby expressing knowledge about properties and relationships between objects and military reality. The combination of concepts about the phenomena of military affairs is called judgment. It reflects whether a feature does or does not belong to the object of an idea.

Induction involves inference from the particular to the general. Scientific induction is based on finding internal causation that necessitates a preliminary analysis of objects to find essential features of certain conditions. Deduction involves inference from the general to the particular.

Syllogism, the authors note, is the most common form of deductive military thought. It reviews two judgment premises linked by a general term and derives from them a conclusion. An enveloping attack combines fire, rapid movement, and deep strike.

An enveloping attack is therefore a type of maneuver. It is a condition based on the establishment of similarity. Lenin called analogies slipshod and demanded careful study of all the pros and cons used with this method. Combat action takes place in time and space, it is true Gaivoronsky and Galkin note, but these are constantly changing situations.

Combat is a two-sided process and involves more than smooth, continuous change. Change is also abrupt and there can be drastic changes in conditions the introduction of weapons of mass destruction to a conventional fight, for example. Combat is also random and possesses a great degree of uncertainty losses, pace of advance, time to reach targets, etc. It is virtually impossible to take all of these instances into account in a normal field exercise, but on a computer countless initiatives logistics, weather, terrain, time of year, etc.

Modeling also enhances creativity, responsiveness, and confidence in running multiple engagement options. The objective laws of war are actually military trends that develop during a particular historical context. Each law reflects links and relationships in seclusion from the rest. The first law of correspondence is between the objectives of war and the means of waging it. The second law of correspondence is between the material resources of war and the methods of conducting military actions.

The third law is the balance of forces on opposing sides that determines victory or defeat. It is quite clear that this problem necessitates a thorough study of the experience of past wars. Gaivoronsky and Galkin state that the principles consolidate the level of development of military knowledge reached through the generalization of war experience. However, now the principles of military art can no longer be based on empirical observation or experience evidence alone.

Theoretical studies and mathematical modeling now impact on the principles of military art. Activity is subordinated to subjective goals which determine the methods and the nature of actions that are chosen. The principles of military art reflect both the requirements of the objective laws of war and the goals of each of the opposing sides.

The principles are more fluid than the laws of military science. However, the laws of military science and the principles of military art together determine the general direction of military activity. Lenin believed in the study of historical events from any category of international affairs.

With regard to revolutionary thought, Marx and Engels warned that once a revolt begins it is necessary to act decisively and go on the offensive. One must know how to attack but also how to retreat when necessary. War enlarges the direction of politics that were in place before the war according to Lenin. Beginning in this error was eliminated as military science became firmly based on Marxist-Leninist teachings about war and society.

Military Doctrine In Chapter Three of his book, Korotkov outlines what is now the most prominent and important aspect of Soviet military history today—military doctrine. Korotkov relies on the testimony of the instigator and proponent of military doctrine, Mikhail V Frunze, often in his work. Frunze believed that the communist party had to adopt a unified view on the defense of the country.

He stated that The State must determine ahead of time the character of general, and in particular, military policy.. It was the responsibility of the political leadership to develop both general and military policy and thereby establish a single national defense plan. Frunze defined a unified military doctrine in the following way: The doctrine, adopted by the army of a given state, which establishes the character of the development of the Armed Forces of the country, the methods of military training of the force, their leadership based on prevailing national views concerning the nature of the missions that lay before them, and the methods to accomplish them, which stem from the class nature of the state and are determined by the level of development of the productive forces of the country.

From these doctrinal principles the problems associated with military theory are examined as well as an investigation of new developments in military affairs. New adversaries, new developments in science and technology, and changes in international affairs for example, new economic developments in some countries all threatened the Soviet Union at the time.

These same issues are confronted today. One of the reasons that military doctrine continues to thrive is the importance attached to it by Russian officers. His work M. Frunze: Voenny Teoretik f M. V Frunze: Military Theoretician was a classic Soviet book of the mids. Gareev clearly has followed the thoughts of Frunze. He lectures and writes often on the importance of military science, history, and military doctrine Gareev truly believes in the veracity of military science.

Undoubtedly he remains an important intellectual figure in Russia even though he is in his mids. Korotkov wrote that this was the correct decision to make since such a military organization could develop a wide range of questions for the government regarding the preparation of the state for defensive activities. Foremost among them is the noted strategist A. Svechin was severely chastised for using the works of Germans L. Ranke and G.

Delbruck for his study of history and military history. Never once did he mention the works of Friedrich Engels, Vladimir I. Lenin, or F. Mering regarding military history or military art. Nor was there any mention of the historical works of Marx or any criticism of the methodology of bourgeois historical science. Svechin was further criticized for not investigating the question of the class nature of an army, its origin, its social character, and the contradictions inside the army.

For example, historical lessons learned, foresight, the initial period of war, and other such issues are regularly discussed. General of the Army Makhmut Gareev is perhaps the most well-known Russian officer who integrates historical and contemporary lessons learned into forecasts of future war that are laced with warning signs.

Colonel S. The Culture of Military Thought noted that practical and cognitive experiences are required for an officer to be a good leader and commander. The authors stated strongly that The most important prerequisite of the culture of a thought process is knowing the essence of the processes of that reality in which both practical and cognitive activity take place.

Experience-based knowledge usually answers the question how should one act, while success also calls for knowledge of why that way and not otherwise. It is theory that must make up for this limitation of experience. However, Russian officers only now are beginning to develop and simulate human science.

This endeavor is creating the material and spiritual prerequisites that will influence the initiative and activity of officer cadres. Man acts out of military honor and military duty as motivating factors but he also acts in keeping with his personal interests. It is necessary for Russian scientists to provide the conditions that allow for harmoniously combining personal interest with those of the collective.

The discussion in The Culture of Military Thought is indicative of this with its focus on creativity, initiative, foresight, concepts, objective- subjective considerations, and the unification of logic and the unconscious that hopefully results in an epiphany of some sort. The History of Military Thought suggests that constant study is of the utmost importance to Russian officers. Soviet authors were directed to study historical lessons learned and remain vigilant.

The study of history was listed as a priority for understanding what is required of an officer if the latter is to understand his or her operational environment. Soviet officers, as are officers today, were asked to focus on military doctrine as the vehicle for understanding the close connection between military policy and military theory.

Officers were also reminded of the necessity to learn the principles of Marxism-Leninism in order to have the capability to peer into the future. Penn Law The University of Pennsylvania Law School, or Penn Law, provides a superior legal education through cross-disciplinary studies and our deserved reputation as a.

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