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aprire porte utorrent link emperor

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The world cannot redeem you; For what, sirs, if the king, provoked at last, Should join the Spaniard, and should fire your city; Paris, your head,—but a most venomous one,— Which must be blooded? Ay, blooded, thou most infamous magistrate, Or you will blood the king, and burn the Louvre; But ere that be, fall million miscreant souls, Such earth-born minds as yours; for, mark me, slaves, Did you not, ages past, consign your lives, Liberties, fortunes, to Imperial hands, Made them the guardians of your sickly years?

And now you're grown up to a booby's greatness, What, would you wrest the sceptre from his hand? Now, by the majesty of kings I swear, You shall as soon be saved for packing juries. Yes, sir, From drowning, to be hanged, burnt, broke o'the wheel.

A plague confound you, Why should I not? Now, in the devil's name, what make you here, Daubing the inside of the court, like snails, Sliming our walls, and pricking out your horns? To hear, I warrant, what the king's a doing, And what the cabinet-council; then to the city, To spread your monstrous lies, and sow sedition? Wild fire choke you! Well, we'll think of this; And so we take our leaves.

Nay, stay, my masters; For I'm a thinking now just whereabouts Grow the two tallest trees in Arden forest. Why, to hang you upon the highest branches. Good rats, my precious vermin. You moving dirt, you rank stark muck o'the world, You oven-bats, you things so far from souls, Like dogs, you're out of Providence's reach, And only fit for hanging; but be gone, And think of plunder. Run with your nose to earth; Run, blood-hound, run, and scent out royal murder.

To the mid region in the sun: Plunder! Begone, vipers, asps, and adders! No matter; I had rather die traduced, Than live by such a villain's help as thine. Then, in the name of all thy brother-devils, What wouldst thou have with me? I know you're honest; Therefore it is my business to disturb you. Why, though you should, yet, if you hear me after, The pleasure I shall take in your vexation, Will heal my bruises. Wert thou definite rogue, I'faith, I think, that I should give thee hearing; But such a boundless villainy as thine Admits no patience.

Your niece is come to court, And yields her honour to our Henry's bed. Thou liest, damned villain. So: why this I looked for; But yet I swear by hell, and my revenge, 'Tis true, as you have wronged me. Wronged thee, villain! And name revenge! O wert thou Grillon's match, And worthy of my sword, I swear, by this One had been past an oath; but thou'rt a worm, And if I tread thee, darest not turn again. Blasted I was ere born—curse on my stars! Yet I have brain, and there is my revenge; Therefore I say again, these eyes have seen Thy blood at court, bright as a summer's morn, When all the heaven is streaked with dappled fires.

And flecked with blushes like a rifled maid; Nay, by the gleamy fires that melted from her, Fast sighs and smiles, swol'n lips, and heaving breasts, My soul presages Henry has enjoyed her. Again thou liest! I stand in adamant, and thus defy thee!

Nay, draw, and with the edge betwixt my lips, Even while thou rak'st it through my teeth, I'll swear All I have said is true, as thou art honest, Or I a villain. Damned infamous wretch! So much below my scorn, I dare not kill thee; And yet so much my hate, that I must fear thee.

For should it be as thou hast said, not all The trophies of my laurelled honesty Should bar me from forsaking this bad world, And never draw my sword for Henry more. I was in hopes thou wouldst have uttered treason, And forfeited thy head, to pay me fully.

Hast thou compacted for a lease of years With hell, that thus thou ventured to provoke me? Perhaps I have: How right the blockhead hits! Yet more to rack thy heart, and break thy brain, Thy niece has been before the Guise's mistress. Forgive my honest meaning. By heaven, my niece! Ha, Malicorn! Enter Alphonso Corso, leading in Marmoutiere. Madam, the king Please you to sit will instantly attend you.

Death, hell, and furies! O heavens! I, that resolved Never to leave those dear delightful shades, But act the little part that nature gave me, On the green carpets of some guiltless grove, And having finished it, forsake the world; Unless sometimes my heart might entertain Some small remembrance of the taking Guise: But that far, far from any darkening thought, To cloud my honour, or eclipse my virtue. Thou liest! Thou hast lost thy honour. Give me this hand, this hand by which I caught thee From the bold ruffian in the massacre, That would have stained thy almost infant honour, With lust, and blood;—dost thou remember it?

But oh, that thou hadst died Ten thousand deaths, ere blasted Grillon's glory; Grillon, that saved thee from a barbarous world. Where thou hadst starved, or sold thyself for bread; Took thee into his bosom, fostered thee As his own soul, and laid thee in his heart-strings; And now, for all my cares, to serve me thus! O 'tis too much, ye powers! It wrings the tears from Grillon's iron heart, And melts me to a babe.

I come to court, to save the life of Guise. I have looked, perhaps, too nicely for my sex, Into the dark affairs of fatal state; And, to advance this dangerous inquisition, I listened to the love of daring Guise. By heaven, that gave those arms success, I swear I do not, as you think!

I have heard the Guise, not with an angel's temper, Something beyond the tenderness of pity, And yet, not love. Now, by the powers that framed me, this is all! Nor should the world have wrought this close confession, But to rebate your jealousy of honour. I know not what to say, nor what to think; There's heaven still in thy voice, but that's a sign Virtue's departing; for thy better angel Still makes the woman's tongue his rising ground, Wags there a while, and takes his flight for ever.

Though I have reason, plain As day, to judge thee false, I think thee true: By heaven, methinks I see a glory round thee! There's something says, thou wilt not lose thy honour:— Death and the devil! Let me conjure you, for your own soul's quiet, And for the everlasting rest of mine, Stir not, till you have heard my heart's design. Angel, or devil, I will.

But I'll retire, And if she plays me false, here's that shall mend her. Marmoutiere sits. Song and Dance. After the breathing of a love-sick heart Upon your hand, once more,—nay twice,—forgive me. Thou dost, by heaven; But with such charming pleasure, I love, and tremble, as at angels' view. Who should be loved, but you? So loved, that even my crown, and self are vile, While you are by. Try me upon despair; My kingdom at the stake, ambition starved, Revenge forgot, and all great appetites That whet uncommon spirits to aspire, So once a day I may have leave— Nay, madam, then you fear me.

Fear you, sir! You've all the graces that can crown mankind; Yet wear them so, as if you did not know them; So stainless, fearless, free in all your actions, As if heaven lent you to the world to pattern. Madam, I find you are no petitioner; My people would not treat me in this sort, Though 'twere to gain a part of their design; But to the Guise they deal their faithless praise As fast, as you your flattery to me; Though for what end I cannot guess, except You come, like them, to mock at my misfortunes.

Forgive you, heaven, that thought! No, mighty monarch, The love of all the good, and wonder of the great; I swear, by heaven, my heart adores, and loves you. Nay, were you, sir, unthroned By this seditious rout that dare despise you, Blast all my days, ye powers!

Sound wind and limb! What shall I answer to thee, O thou balm To heal a broken, yet a kingly heart! For, so I swear I will be to my last. Come to my arms, and be thy Harry's angel, Shine through my cares, and make my crown sit easy. What said you, Marmoutiere? Why dost thou turn thy beauties into frowns? No more? By heaven! No, sir, I find I am a trouble to you; You will not hear my suit. You cannot go, You shall not. Then, sir, thus low, or prostrate if you please, Let me intreat for Guise.

Ha, madam, what! For Guise; for Guise! Then let me tamely yield my glories up, Which once I vowed with my drawn sword to wear To my last drop of blood. This I expected; but when you have heard How far I would intreat your majesty, Perhaps you'll be more calm. See, I am hushed; Speak then; how far, madam, would you command? Not to proceed to last extremities, Before the wound is desperate.

Think alone, For no man judges like your majesty: Take your own methods; all the heads of France Cannot so well advise you, as yourself. Therefore resume, my lord, your god-like temper, Yet do not bear more than a monarch should; Believe it, sir, the more your majesty Draws back your arm, the more of fate it carries. Thou genius of my state, thou perfect model Of heaven itself, and abstract of the angels, Forgive the late disturbance of my soul!

I'm clear by nature, as a rockless stream; But they dig through the gravel of my heart, And raise the mud of passions up to cloud me; Therefore let me conjure you, do not go; 'Tis said, the Guise will come in spite of me; Suppose it possible, and stay to advise me.

I will be easy, To my last gasp, as your own virgin thoughts, And never dare to breathe my passion more; Yet you'll allow me now and then to sigh As we discourse, and court you with my eyes? Why do you wave your hand, and warn me hence? So looks the poor condemned, When justice beckons, there's no hope of pardon. Sternly, like you, the judge the victim eyes, And thus, like me, the wretch, despairing, dies.

O rare, rare creature! By the power that made me, Wer't possible we could be damned again By some new Eve, such virtue might redeem us. Oh I could clasp thee, but that my arms are rough, Till all thy sweets were broke with my embraces, And kiss thy beauties to a dissolution! Ah father, uncle, brother, all the kin, The precious blood that's left me in the world, Believe, dear sir, whate'er my actions seem, I will not lose my virtue, for a throne.

Why, I will carve thee out a throne myself; I'll hew down all the kings in Christendom, And seat thee on their necks, as high as heaven. By these whispering councils, My soul presages that the Guise is coming. If he dares come, were I a man, a king, I'd sacrifice him in the city's sight. Were I a man, I know not that; but, as I am a virgin, If I would offer thee, too lovely Guise, It should be kneeling to the throne of mercy.

Down, rising mischief, down, or I will kill thee, Even in thy cause, and strangle new-born pity! His charms prevail;—no, let the rebel die. I faint beneath this strong oppression here; Reason and love rend my divided soul; Heaven be the judge, and still let virtue conquer.

Love to his tune my jarring heart would bring, But reason over-winds, and cracks the string. The king dispatches order upon order, With positive command to stop his coming. Yet there is notice given to the city; Besides, Belleure brought but a half account, How that the Guise replied, he would obey His majesty in all; yet, if he might Have leave to justify himself before him, He doubted not his cause.

The axe, the axe: Rebellion's pampered to a pleurisy, And it must bleed. Hark, what a shout was there! I'll to the king; it may be, 'tis reported On purpose thus. Let there be truth or lies In this mad fame, I'll bring you instant word. Shouts again. Death, and thou devil Malicorn, is that Thy master?

Yes, Grillon, 'tis the Guise; One, that would court you for a friend. A friend! Traitor thou mean'st, and so I bid thee welcome; But since thou art so insolent, thy blood Be on thy head, and fall by me unpitied. The bruises of his loyalty have crazed him. Malicorn, Malicorn, Malicorn, ho! If the Guise resolves to go, I charge, I warn thee let him know, Perhaps his head may lie too low. Therefore I will see him, And so report my danger to the people.

Halt—to your judgment. I thought a look, with us, had been a language; I'll talk my mind on any point but this By glances;—ha! What, Marmoutiere? Ay, there a general's heart beat like a drum! Quick, quick! Dissembled, for she told me this before; 'Twas all put on, that I might hear and rave.

And so, to make sure work on't, by consent Of Grillon, who is made their bawd,—. At court, and near the king; 'tis true, by heaven: I never play'd you foul, why should you doubt me? I would thou hadst, ere thus unmanned my heart! Blood, battles, fire, and death! I run, I run! With this last blow he drives me like a coward; Nay, let me never win a field again, If, with the thought of these irregular vapours, The blood ha'nt burst my lips.

By heaven, I took thee for my soul's physician, And dost thou vomit me with this loathed peace? O jealousy of love! Greater than fame! Pray, sir, give me leave. A moment's thought;—ha, but I sweat and tremble, My brain runs this and that way; it will not fix On aught but vengeance. But hark, they shout again: I'll on and meet them; Nay, head them to his palace, as my guards. Yet more, on such exalted causes borne, I'll wait him in his cabinet alone, And look him pale; while in his courts without, The people shout him dead with their alarms, And make his mistress tremble in his arms.

I told your majesty, The sheriffs have puffed the populace with hopes Of their deliverer. O villain, slave, wert thou my late-born heir, Given me by heaven, even when I lay a-dying— But peace, thou festering thought, and hide thy wound;— Where is he? With her majesty, your mother; She has taken chair, and he walks bowing by her, With thirty thousand rebels at his heels. What's to be done? No pall upon my spirit; But he that loves me best, and dares the most On this nice point of empire, let him speak.

I would advise you, sir, to call him in, And kill him instantly upon the spot. I like Alphonso's counsel, short, sure work; Cut off the head, and let the body walk. Not so,—forbear; the city is up in arms; Nor doubt, if, in their heat, you cut him off, That they will spare the royal majesty. Once, sir, let me advise, and rule your fury.

I know not;— Colonel Grillon, call the archers in, Double your guards, and strictly charge the Swiss Stand to their arms, receive him as a traitor. My heart has set thee down, O Guise, in blood,— Blood, mother, blood, ne'er to be blotted out. If I forgive him, may I ne'er be forgiven!

No, if I tamely bear such insolence, What act of treason will the villains stop at? Seize me, they've sworn; imprison me is the next, Perhaps arraign me, and then doom me dead. But ere I suffer that, fall all together, Or rather, on their slaughtered heaps erect My throne, and then proclaim it for example. I'm born a monarch, which implies alone To wield the sceptre, and depend on none. A Chair of State placed; the King appears sitting in it; a Table by him, on which he leans; Attendants on each Side of him; amongst the rest, Abbot, Grillon, and Bellieure.

The Queen-Mother enters, led by the Duke of Guise, who makes his Approach with three Reverences to the King's Chair; after the third, the King rises, and coming forward, speaks. Why, that you came, I see. Once more, I sent you word, you should not come. Not come to throw myself, with all submission, Beneath your royal feet! Now 'tis with all submission,—that's the preface,— Yet still you came against my strict command; You disobeyed me, duke, with all submission.

Sir, 'twas the last necessity that drove me, To clear myself of calumnies, and slanders, Much urged, but never proved, against my innocence; Yet had I known 'twas your express command, I should not have approached. Sir, thus it was. I met him on the way, And plain as I could speak, I gave your orders, Just in these following words:—. Enough, I know you told him; But he has used me long to be contemned, And I can still be patient, and forgive. And I can ask forgiveness, when I err; But let my gracious master please to know The true intent of my misconstrued faith.

Should I not come to vindicate my fame From wrong constructions? Come, duke, you were not wronged; your conscience knows You were not wronged; were you not plainly told, That, if you dared to set your foot in Paris, You should be held the cause of all commotions That should from thence ensue?

I will; and would be glad, my lord of Guise, To clear you to myself. I had been told, There were in agitation here at court, Things of the highest note against religion, Against the common properties of subjects, And lives of honest well-affected men; I therefore judged,—. Then you, it seems, are judge Betwixt the prince and people? I feared it might be represented so, And came resolved,—.

The means for that, Had been your absence from this hot-brained town, Where you, not I, are king! You tremble and look pale; for heaven's sake think, 'Tis your own life you venture, if you kill him. Had I ten thousand lives, I'll venture all.

Give me way, madam! Not to your destruction. The whole Parisian herd is at your gates; A crowd's a name too small, they are a nation, Numberless, armed, enraged, one soul informs them. And that one soul's the Guise. I'll rend it out, And damn the rabble all at once in him. My fate is now in the balance; fool within, I thank thee for thy foresight.

By heaven, there are not limbs in all your guards, For every one a morsel. I must not give them time for resolution. My journey, sir, has discomposed my health, [To the king. I humbly beg your leave, I may retire, Till your commands recall me to your service. So, you have counselled well; the traitor's gone, To mock the meekness of an injured king. But when you kept me cooped within your womb, You palled his generous blood with the dull mixture Of your Italian food, and milked slow arts Of womanish tameness in my infant mouth.

Why stood I stupid else, and missed a blow, Which heaven and daring folly made so fair? A pox on this unseasonable wisdom! He was a fool to come; if so, then they, Who let him go, were somewhat. The event, the event will shew us what we were; For, like a blazing meteor hence he shot, And drew a sweeping fiery train along. While you lose time in idle talk, And use no means for safety and prevention.

What can I do? O mother, Abbot, Grillon! All dumb! Such an overwhelming ill makes grief a fool, As if redress were past. I'll go to the next sheriff, And beg the first reversion of a rope: Dispatch is all my business; I'll hang for you. So then, my lord, we're a day off from death: What shall to-morrow do? To-morrow, sir, If hours between slide not too idly by, You may be master of their destiny, Who now dispose so loftily of yours.

Not far without the suburbs there are quartered Three thousand Swiss, and two French regiments. It shall be so: by heaven there's life in this! The wrack of clouds is driving on the winds, And shews a break of sunshine— Go Grillon, give my orders to Byron, And see your soldiers well disposed within, For safeguard of the Louvre.

One thing more: The Guise his business yet not fully ripe, Will treat, at least, for shew of loyalty; Let him be met with the same arts he brings. I know, he'll make exorbitant demands, But here your part of me will come in play; The Italian soul shall teach me how to sooth: Even Jove must flatter with an empty hand, 'Tis time to thunder, when he gripes the brand.

Thus far the cause of God; but God's or devil's,— I mean my master's cause, and mine,—succeed, What shall the Guise do next? But why in this fanatic habit, devil? Thou look'st like one that preaches to the crowd; Gospel is in thy face, and outward garb, And treason on thy tongue.

Thou hast me right: Ten thousand devils more are in this habit; Saintship and zeal are still our best disguise: We mix unknown with the hot thoughtless crowd, And quoting scriptures, which too well we know, With impious glosses ban the holy text, And make it speak rebellion, schism, and murder; So turn the arms of heaven against itself.

Thou art mistaken, master; 'tis not he, But 'tis a zealous, godly, canting devil, Who has assumed the churchman's lucky shape, To talk the crowd to madness and rebellion. O true enthusiastic devil, true,— For lying is thy nature, even to me, Did'st thou not tell me, if my lord, the Guise, Entered the court, his head should then lie low?

That was a lie; he went, and is returned. Thou hast deserved me, And I am thine, dear devil: what do we next? Suppose it done: He's clapt within a convent, shorn a saint, My master mounts the throne. Not so fast, Malicorn; Thy master mounts not, till the king be slain.

He cannot be deposed: He may be killed, a violent fate attends him; But at his birth there shone a regal star. No, not a stronger, but more popular. Their births were full opposed, the Guise now strongest But if the ill influence pass o'er Harry's head, As in a year it will, France ne'er shall boast A greater king than he; now cut him off, While yet his stars are weak.

Thou talk'st of stars: Can'st thou not see more deep into events, And by a surer way? No, Malicorn; The ways of heaven are broken since our fall, Gulph beyond gulph, and never to be shot. Once we could read our mighty Maker's mind, As in a crystal mirror, see the ideas Of things that always are, as he is always; Now, shut below in this dark sphere, By second causes dimly we may guess, And peep far off on heaven's revolving orbs, Which cast obscure reflections from the throne.

I took the revolution of the year, Just when the Sun was entering in the Ham: The ascending Scorpion poisoned all the sky, A sign of deep deceit and treachery. Full on his cusp his angry master sate, Conjoined with Saturn, baleful both to man: Of secret slaughters, empires overturned, Strife, blood, and massacres, expect to hear, And all the events of an ill-omened year. Then flourish hell, and mighty mischief reign! Mischief, to some, to others must be good. But hark! It is truly guessed; But know, 'tis from no nightly sexton's hand.

There's not a damned ghost, nor hell-born fiend, That can from limbo 'scape, but hither flies; With leathern wings they beat the dusky skies, To sacred churches all in swarms repair; Some crowd the spires, but most the hallowed bells, And softly toll for souls departing knells: Each chime, thou hear'st, a future death foretells, Now there they perch to have them in their eyes, 'Till all go loaded to the nether skies [15].

To-morrow let it be; Or thou deceiv'st those hungry, gaping fiends, And Beelzebub will rage. Why Beelzebub? I told thee true; But Lucifer, as he who foremost fell, So now lies lowest in the abyss of hell, Chained till the dreadful doom; in place of whom Sits Beelzebub, vicegerent of the damned, Who, listening downward, hears his roaring lord, And executes his purpose.

The morning creeps behind yon eastern hill, And now the guard is mine, to drive the elves, And foolish fairies, from their moonlight play, And lash the laggers from the sight of day. Enter Guise, Mayenne, Cardinal, and Archbishop. Sullen, methinks, and slow the morning breaks, As if the sun were listless to appear, And dark designs hung heavy on the day. You're an old man too soon, you're superstitious; I'll trust my stars, I know them now by proof; The genius of the king bends under mine: Environed with his guards, he durst not touch me; But awed and cravened, as he had been spelled, Would have pronounced, Go kill the Guise, and durst not.

We have him in our power, coop'd in his court. Who leads the first attack? As much too hot, as Mayenne is too cool. But 'tis the manlier fault of the two. Have you not heard the king, preventing day, Received the guards into the city gates, The jolly Swisses marching to their fifes? The crowd stood gaping, heartless and amazed, Shrunk to their shops, and left the passage free. I would it should be so, 'twas a good horror [17]. First let them fear for rapes, and ransacked houses; That very fright, when I appear to head them, Will harden their soft city courages: Cold burghers must be struck, and struck like flints, Ere their hid fire will sparkle.

They are too few for us to fear; Our numbers in old martial men are more, The city not cast in; but the pretence, That hither they are brought to bridle Paris, Will make this rising pass for just defence. Suppose, as well, the sun should never rise: He may not rise, for heaven may play a trick; But he has risen from Adam's time to ours.

No venture made, but all dull certainty? By heaven I'll tug with Henry for a crown, Rather than have it on tame terms of yielding: I scorn to poach for power. A lady, say'st thou, young and beautiful, Brought in a chair? Conduct her in. I would; retire. Starting back. I dare not trust my eyes! You are not Marmoutiere? Why, any thing but she: What should the mistress of a king do here?

Fear is for guilty men, rebels, and traitors: Where'er I go, my virtue is my guard. What devil has sent thee here to plague my soul? O that I could detest thee now as much As ever I have loved, nay, even as much As yet, in spite of all thy crimes, I love! But 'tis a love so mixt with dark despair, The smoke and soot smother the rising flame, And make my soul a furnace. Woman, woman, What can I call thee more?

Sure, thine's a race was never got by Adam, But Eve played false, engendering with the serpent, Her own part worse than his. Then they got traitors. Yes, angel-traitors, fit to shine in palaces, Forked into ills, and split into deceits; Two in their very frame. Still thy sex: Once true in all thy life, and that for mischief. Nor him, nor you, In that unlawful way you seem to mean. My eyes had once so far betrayed my heart, As to distinguish you from common men; Whate'er you said, or did, was charming all.

I do not say more charming, but more noble, More truly royal, more a king in soul, Than you are now in wishes. May be so: But love has oiled your tongue to run so glib,— Curse on your eloquence! Curse not that eloquence that saved your life: For, when your wild ambition, which defied A royal mandate, hurried you to town; When over-weening pride of popular power Had thrust you headlong in the Louvre toils, Then had you died: For know, my haughty lord, Had I not been, offended majesty Had doomed you to the death you well deserved.

You know him better, or you ought to know him: He's born to give you fear, not to receive it. Say this again; but add, you gave not up Your honour as the ransom of my life; For, if you did, 'twere better I had died. Why said you, so it were? For though 'tis true, methinks 'tis much unkind. My lord, we are not now to talk of kindness. If you acknowledge I have saved your life, Be grateful in return, and do an act, Your honour, though unasked by me, requires. By heaven, and you, whom next to heaven I love, If I said more, I fear I should not lie, I'll do whate'er my honour will permit.

Go, throw yourself at Henry's royal feet, And rise not till approved a loyal subject. I cannot leave My country, friends, religion, all at stake. Be wise, and be before-hand with your fortune; Prevent the turn, forsake the ruined court; Stay here, and make a merit of your love. No; I'll return, and perish in those ruins. I find thee now, ambitious, faithless, Guise. Farewell, the basest and the last of men! Stay, or—O heaven! I do believe So ill of you, so villainously ill, That, if you durst, you would: Honour you've little, honesty you've less; But conscience you have none: Yet there's a thing called fame, and men's esteem, Preserves me from your force.

Once more, farewell. Look on me, Guise; thou seest me now the last; Though treason urge not thunder on thy head, This one departing glance shall flash thee dead. Ha, said she true? Have I so little honour? Why, then, a prize so easy and so fair Had never 'scaped my gripe: but mine she is; For that's set down as sure as Henry's fall.

But my ambition, that she calls my crime;— False, false, by fate! And heaven confest it in my very frame; The fires, that would have formed ten thousand angels, Were crammed together for my single soul. My lord, you trifle precious hours away; The heavens look gaudily upon your greatness, And the crowned moments court you as they fly. Brisac and fierce Aumale have pent the Swiss, And folded them like sheep in holy ground; Where now, with ordered pikes, and colours furled, They wait the word that dooms them all to die: Come forth, and bless the triumph of the day.

So slight a victory required not me: I but sat still, and nodded, like a god, My world into creation; now 'tis time To walk abroad, and carelessly survey How the dull matter does the form obey. Enter Citizens, and Melanax, in his fanatic Habit, at the head them. Hold, hold, a little, fellow citizens; and you, gentlemen of the rabble, a word of godly exhortation to strengthen your hands, ere you give the onset. Is this a time to make sermons?

I would not hear the devil now, though he should come in God's name, to preach peace to us. Look you, gentlemen, sermons are not to be despised; we have all profited by godly sermons that promote sedition: let the precious man hold forth. To promote sedition is my business: It has been so before any of you were born, and will be so, when you are all dead and damned; I have led on the rabble in all ages. He has led the rabble both old and young, that's all ages: A heavenly sweet man, I warrant him; I have seen him somewhere in a pulpit.

How, every where? That's another lie: How far have you travelled, friend? I say no: For, look you, gentlemen, if he has been a traveller, he certainly says true, for he may lie by authority. That the rabble may depose their prince, has in all times, and in all countries, been accounted lawful. That's the first true syllable he has uttered: but as how, and whereby, and when, may they depose him?

Whenever they have more power to depose, than he has to oppose; and this they may do upon the least occasion. Sirrah, you mince the matter; you should say, we may do it upon no occasion, for the less the better.

Some occasion, in my mind, were not amiss: for, look you, gentlemen, if we have no occasion, then whereby we have no occasion to depose him; and therefore, either religion or liberty, I stick to those occasions; for when they are gone, good night to godliness and freedom. When the most are of one side, as that's our case, we are always in the right; for they, that are in power, will ever be the judges: so that if we say white is black, poor white must lose the cause, and put on mourning; for white is but a single syllable, and we are a whole sentence.

Therefore, go on boldly, and lay on resolutely for your Solemn League and Covenant; and if here be any squeamish conscience who fears to fight against the king,—though I, that have known you, citizens, these thousand years, suspect not any,—let such understand that his majesty's politic capacity is to be distinguished from his natural; and though you murder him in one, you may preserve him in the other; and so much for this time, because the enemy is at hand. He looks so grum, I don't care to have to do with him; would I were safe in my shop, behind the counter.

And would I were under my wife's petticoats. Look you, gentlemen. You, neighbour, behind your counter, yesterday paid a bill of exchange in glass louis d'ors; and you, friend, that cry, look you, gentlemen, this very morning was under another woman's petticoats, and not your wife's. Therefore, fight lustily for the cause of heaven, and to make even tallies for your sins; which, that you may do with a better conscience, I absolve you both, and all the rest of you: Now, go on merrily; for those, that escape, shall avoid killing; and those, who do not escape, I will provide for in another world.

They fight. Hey, for the duke of Guise, and property! Up with religion and the cause, and down with those arbitrary rogues there! Stand to't, you associated cuckolds. O cowards! Possess yourselves of the place, Maubert, and hang me up those two rogues, for an example. O spare me, sweet colonel; I am but a young beginner, and new set up.

I'll be your customer, and set you up a little better, sirrah;—go, hang him at the next sign-post:—What have you to say for yourself, scoundrel? Look you, colonel, 'twas out of no ill meaning to the government; all that I did, was pure obedience to my wife.

Nay, if thou hast a wife that wears the breeches, thou shalt be condemned to live: Get thee home for a hen-pecked traitor. Nay, then, faces this way; we'll sell our skins to the fairest chapmen. Enter Aumale and Soldiers, on the one side, Citizens on the other. Grillon, and his Party, are disarmed.

Bear away that bloody-minded colonel, and hang him up at the next sign-post: Nay, when I am in power, I can make examples too. Tear him piece-meal; tear him piece-meal. Rogues, villains, rebels, traitors, cuckolds! Look you, colonel; you are too bulky to be carried off all at once; a leg or an arm is one man's burden: give me a little finger for a sample of him, whereby I'll carry it for a token to my sovereign lady.

Et tu, Brute, whom I saved? O the conscience of a shopkeeper! Look you, colonel, for your saving of me, I thank you heartily, whereby that debt's paid; but for speaking treason against my anointed wife, that's a new reckoning between us.

Stand on your guard, and double every watch, But stain your triumph with no Christian blood; French we are all, and brothers of a land. What mean you, brother, by this godly talk, Of sparing Christian blood? And can expound it too: But Christian faith was in the nonage then, And Roman heathens lorded o'er the world. What madness were it for the weak and few, To fight against the many and the strong?

Grillon must die, so must the tyrant's guards, Lest, gathering head again, they make more work. My lord, the people must be fleshed in blood, To teach them the true relish; dip them with you, Or they'll perhaps repent. You are fools; to kill them, were to shew I feared them; The court, disarmed, disheartened and besieged, Are all as much within my power, as if I griped them in my fist. Dismiss those prisoners. I will be so: but let me tell you, Guise, As this was greatly done, 'twas proudly too: I'll give you back your life when next we meet; 'Till then I am your debtor.

That's till dooms-day. Haste, brother, draw out fifteen thousand men, Surround the Louvre, lest the prey should 'scape. I know the king will send to treat; We'll set the dice on him in high demands, No less than all his offices of trust; He shall be pared, and cantoned out, and clipped So long, he shall not pass.

Best make advantage of this popular rage, Let in the o'erwhelming tide on Harry's head; In that promiscuous fury, who shall know, Among a thousand swords, who killed the king? O my dear lord, upon this only day Depends the series of your following fate: Think your good genius has assumed my shape, In this prophetic doom.

Peace, croaking raven! Yes, 'faith, we past like beaten Romans underneath the fork. You are a true lion, but my men are sheep; If you run first, I'll swear they'll follow you. What, all turned cowards? Troth, I can't find them much inclined to perishing. What can be left in danger, but to dare?

No matter for my arms, I'll go barefaced, And seize the first bold rebel that I meet. There's something of divinity in kings, That sits between their eyes, and guards their life. True, Abbot; but the mischief is, you churchmen Can see that something further than the crowd; These musket bullets have not read much logic, Nor are they given to make your nice distinctions: [One enters, and gives the Queen a Note, she reads— One of them possibly may hit the king In some one part of him that's not divine; And so that mortal part of his majesty would draw the divinity of it into another world, sweet Abbot.

Wings, or no wings, is not the question: If you won't fly for't, you must ride for't, And that comes much to one. Forsake a bedlam; This note informs me fifteen thousand men Are marching to inclose the Louvre round. The business then admits no more dispute, You, madam, must be pleased to find the Guise; Seem easy, fearful, yielding, what you will; But still prolong the treaty all you can, To gain the king more time for his escape.

I'll undertake it. My blessing shall be given in your deliverance; That once performed, their web is all unravelled, And Guise is to begin his work again. Nay, then another minute must be given. If it must be—.

No, nor shall not, wench, as long as my soul wears a body. Secure in that, I'll trust thee;—shall I trust thee? For conquerors have charms, and women frailty:— Farewell thou mayst behold me king again; My soul's not yet deposed:—why then farewell!

The moments that retard your flight are traitors. Make haste, my royal master, to be safe, And save me with you, for I'll share your fate. Wilt thou go too? Then I am reconciled to heaven again: O welcome, thou good angel of my way, Thou pledge and omen of my safe return! Not Greece, nor hostile Juno could destroy The hero that abandoned burning Troy; He 'scaped the dangers of the dreadful night, When, loaded with his gods, he took his flight. Since last we parted at the barricadoes, The world's turned upside down.

No, 'faith, 'tis better now, 'tis downside up: Our part o'the wheel is rising, though but slowly. When the king was escaped from Paris, and got out of the toils, 'twas time for the Guise to take them down, and pitch others: that is, to treat for the calling of a parliament, where, being sure of the major part, he might get by law what he had missed by force. But why should the king assemble the States, to satisfy the Guise, after so many affronts? For the same reason, that a man in a duel says he has received satisfaction, when he is first wounded, and afterwards disarmed.

Because no barricadoes have been made at Blois. This Blois is a very little town, and the king can draw it after him; but Paris is a damned unwieldy bulk; and when the preachers draw against the king, a parson in a pulpit is a devilish fore-horse. Besides, I found in that insurrection what dangerous beasts these townsmen are; I tell you, colonel, a man had better deal with ten of their wives, than with one zealous citizen: O your inspired cuckold is most implacable.

Is there any seeming kindness between the king and the duke of Guise? Yes, most wonderful: they are as dear to one another as an old usurer, and a rich young heir upon a mortgage. The king is very loyal to the Guise, and the Guise is very gracious to the king: Then the cardinal of Guise, and the archbishop of Lyons, are the two pendants that are always hanging at the royal ear; they ease his majesty of all the spiritual business, and the Guise of all the temporal; so that the king is certainly the happiest prince in Christendom, without any care upon him; so yielding up every thing to his loyal subjects, that he's infallibly in the way of being the greatest and most glorious king in all the world.

Yet I have heard he made a sharp reflecting speech upon their party at the opening of the parliament, admonished men of their duties, pardoned what was past, but seemed to threaten vengeance if they persisted for the future. Yes; and then they all took the sacrament together: he promising to unite himself to them, and they to obey him, according to the laws; yet the very next morning they went on, in pursuance of their old commonwealth designs, as violently as ever.

Now, I am dull enough to think they have broken their oath. Ay, but you are but one private man, and they are the three States; and if they vote that they have not broken their oaths, who is to be judge? I hope you mean in heaven; or else you are a bolder man than I am in parliament time [18] ; but here comes the master and my niece. Heaven preserve him! O yes, you may pray for him; the preachers of the Guise's side do that most formally; nay, you may be suffered civilly to drink his health; be of the court, and keep a place of profit under him: for, in short, 'tis a judged case of conscience, to make your best of the king, and to side against him.

Grillon, be near me, There's something for my service to be done, Your orders will be sudden; now, withdraw. Not more on this, than on the next, and next. My time is all ta'en up on usury; I never am beforehand with my hours, But every one has work before it comes. I tell thee, Marmoutiere, I never speak, Not when alone, for fear some fiend should hear, And blab my secrets out. Your spirit is too high, Great souls forgive not injuries, till time Has put their enemies into their power, That they may shew, forgiveness is their own; For else, 'tis fear to punish, that forgives; The coward, not the king.

They must, till they can shake their burden off; And that's, I think, your aim. Mistaken still: All favours, all preferments, pass through them; I'm pliant, and they mould me as they please. These are your arts, to make them more secure; Just so your brother used the admiral. Brothers may think, and act like brothers too.

Nay, what mean you? O, thou hast set thy foot upon a snake! Get quickly off, or it will sting thee dead. Think, sir, your thoughts are still as much your own, As when you kept the key of your own breast; But since you let me in, I find it filled With death and horror: you would murder Guise. Would I could! But justice bears the godlike shape of law, And law requires defence, and equal plea Betwixt the offender, and the righteous judge. Yes, when the offender can be judged by laws: But when his greatness overturns the scales, Then kings are justice in the last appeal, And, forced by strong necessity, may strike; In which, indeed, they assert the public good, And, like sworn surgeons, lop the gangrened limb: Unpleasant, wholesome, work.

What means, but yet? Maintain it then to heaven, but not to me. Do you love me? Yes, I can doubt it, if you can deny; Love begs once more this great offender's life. Can you forgive the man you justly hate, That hazards both your life and crown to spare him? One, whom you may suspect I more than pity,— For I would have you see, that what I ask, I know, is wondrous difficult to grant,— Can you be thus extravagantly good? What then? Then, in return, I swear to heaven and you, To give you all the preference of my soul; No rebel rival to disturb you there; Let him but live, that he may be my convert!

You've conquered; all that's past shall be forgiven. My lavish love has made a lavish grant; But know, this act of grace shall be my last. Let him repent, yes, let him well repent; Let him desist, and tempt revenge no further: For, by yon heaven, that's conscious of his crimes, I will no more by mercy be betrayed. The deputies are entering; you must leave me.

Thus, tyrant business all my hours usurps, And makes me live for others. Now heaven reward you with a prosperous reign, And grant, you never may be good in vain! Well, my good lords, what matters of importance Employed the States this morning? Porta Praetoria c. Porta Decumana, where the condemned were led out to be slain d. Quarters of the Tribunes, who were heads of the legions e.

Quarters of the Prefects, who were heads of the confederates f. Select Cavalry, who were all men of distinguished valour, and were two hundred in number g. Infantry numbering four hundred and all valorous men, selected by the Consul h. Extraordinarii cavalry who undertook various actions according to the orders of the Consul and were four hundred in number i.

Extraordinarii infantry, eight hundred in number, who obeyed the Consul, and were lodged like the others, behind the army k. Quaestorium, where the soldiers were paid l. Praetorian Forum, where the Consul kept justice m. Infantry of the confederates n. Cavalry of the confederates o. Hastati of the Roman legions p. Principes of the said legions q. Triarii of the said legions r. Cavalry of the legions s. Road called the Quintana, where the soldiers trained t.

Gates to the square where the soldiers walked v. Edge of the embankment of the quarters x. Place where victualers and others were y. Ditch which went round the quarters [n. The side of the galley, how the oars were with some higher than others d. Wooden beam four paces long, three palms thick e. Bridge called the corvus thirty feet long, 2 feet high, x feet wide f.

Iron hook for grappling enemy galleys g. Rope to keep the corvus up [n. The city of Agrigentum b. The two quarters of the Romans c. The river called Agrigentum e. River called Hipesa f. On this side was the temple of Aesculapius, and it faced east h. On this side was Heraclea, and it faced east i. The city fortress k. Fortifications built between the two trenches where the corps of the guards were When the Romans laid siege to some important cities, they circumvallated them with double trenches and the fortifications were the guard corps were so that no one could enter or leave, as they did at Agrigentum.

Marcus Attilius b. Lucius Manlius c. First fleet that was one side of the triangle d. Second fleet that formed the other side of the triangle e. Third Fleet, which towed the ships where the horses were f. Ship where the horses and machines were g. Fourth fleet called triarii, which closed the base of the triangle h.

Fleet of the Carthaginian fleet divided in four parts i. Right wing that was in high seas commanded by Hanno k. Left wing established near the shore, which was commanded by Hamilcar, who positioned himself in the middle of the fleet The Roman fleet was very powerful and deployed with admirable order; a very fine Carthaginian formation to divide and separate the Roman fleet and fight and launch a sudden attack.

City of Adys b. Fortifications where the guard corps were e. Carthaginian soldiers, who defended the hill g. Roman quarters b. Carthaginian quarters c. Carthaginian army d. Elephants at the front of the army e. The Carthaginian legion f. Mercenaries on both wings g. Cavalry and light infantry placed on both wings in alternate ranks h.

Front line of the Roman army i. Right wing k. Left wing l. Cavalry on both wings Note that in this battle, the Romans, who usually carried the ensigns in front of the army, fearing the fury of the Elephants, placed them in the middle of the squadrons. Palermo b. River, which flows by Palermo c. Elephants e. Cavalry on both wings f.

Light infantry g. Moat of Palermo, where the light infantry escaped to after advancing to provoke the elephants i. Cavalry on both wings l. Sea m. Port n. Light infantry, who go to attack the Elephants Metellus had a very fine stratagem, which meant the forces in which the enemy trusted most were the cause of his own ruin; having put the Elephants in disarray, Metellus attacked them [the Carthaginian army] with his army and broke through them.

City of Lilybaeum b. Trenches, which the Romans made to besiege Lilybaeum d. City of Trapani b. Port c. Roman fleet d. Carthaginian fleet e. The shore where the Roman fleet entered the port f. The shore where the Carthaginian fleet left the port g. Left wing of the Roman fleet where the Consul was h.

Right wing of the Carthaginian fleet where Hasdrubal was Confusion in warfare is the cause of the downfall of armies and fleets, as one sees with Appius Claudius, who having failed to establish good order and being in complete confusion, had his fleet broken and he only just managed to flee.

Hill above the sea between Trapani and Palermo called Erice b. The city of Erycina, halfway up the hill c. At the top of this hill, the temple of Venus Erycina, which is richer and more ornate than any other in Sicily d. Roman fortifications at the foot of the hill e. City of Trapani f. City of Palermo g. Sea towards Palin [Italy?

The hill between Palermo and Regio, which Hamilcar occupied to make war b. The port for harbouring his fleet e. Small hill, which serves as a lookout Having chosen an excellent site, with a port and fresh water, Hamilcar harassed the Romans at sea and on land, and this site had been seen by other Captains, but was not recognised. This oversight is corrected in Polibio fi. City of Sefira b. River Makaras c. City of Utica d. Light infantry h.

The army that was at Sefira k. French army with two fronts b. Small hill where the French cavalry and the Roman cavalry fought c. French soldiers called Gaesatae f. Soldiers also of the French called Gaesatae g. Taurisci and other soldiers around the Po h. Insubres and Boii soldiers i. French carriages Since the French army was caught between two Consular armies, and its cavalry, which was fighting on the small hill, was broken by the Roman cavalry and made to flee, the Roman cavalry attacked the flank of the French army, and so had no trouble in overcoming it.

Hill called Olympus where Cleomenes was c. Regular soldiers, and companion soldiers who were with Eucleidas d. Mercenaries and Lacedaemonian soldiers who were with Cleomenes e. Mercenary reserves for the cavalry g. Slavic and Macedonian soldiers with shields all together with Antigonus h. Acarnanians and Cretans i. Achaean reserves numbering two thousand k. Two thousand foot soldiers in reserve to the cavalry m.

Macedonian soldiers and here was Antigonus o. River Tagus b. Carpetani people of Spain entering the river c. Elephants numbering forty e. Light infantry Hannibal pretended to flee, and moved back a long way from the river, thus encouraging the enemy to enter the water and cross the said river, and since they were divided and disordered he attacked with his cavalry and elephants and light infantry, and defeated them, keeping the rest of the army in formation, to be ready for all incidents which might occur.

River Rhone c. French quarters d. Spaniards sent with Hanno, crossing the Rhone and attacking the French e. Hanno with some of the Spaniards f. Rafts 50 feet long and wide, near the bank b. Rafts feet long and 50 feet wide, on which the Elephants were carried across the river by the said mobile rafts c. Boats which towed the rafts with the Elephants to the other bank d.

The infantry which marched up one side [and down the other] of the river e. Cavalry placed to defend the river, if necessary Hannibal had the excellent idea of ferrying the elephants across the Rhone, placing the cavalry to defend, if necessary, the other side of the river, and the infantry marched up the river [side].

Castle of Savogini captured by Hannibal c. Hill which Hannibal occupied at night, above the mountain tribes d. The mountain tribes which attacked Hannibal f. The mountain tribes who occupied the higher ground to harass the army c. River Ticinus b. Light infantry, who were called those of the javelins e. French cavalry positioned on the wings on the Roman side f. Reserve cavalry g. Carthaginian horses positioned in the centre h. Numidian horses placed on the wings i.

Reserve horses k. There is nothing better than circumventing the enemy, which when achieved brings certain victory. River Trebia d. Place of the ambush with horsemen and foot soldiers e. Right wing, where there were ten thousand Spaniards and Africans f. Left wing, where there were another ten thousand Spaniards and Africans g. Horses numbering five thousand in each wing h. Elephants numbering 18 for each wing i.

Roman light infantry k. Legion or frontline of the Roman army, and the legions were 8 in number l. Roman Cavalry positioned on the wings, numbering divided in half for each wing m. Lake Trasimeno b. Light infantry, which attacked Flaminius d. The Roman army f.

The Roman cavalry g. Oxen which Hannibal sent with fire between their horns to trick Fabius and he [Hannibal] having come out with his army from the difficult passes d. French soldiers i. Spanish soldiers positioned at the rear of the army Hannibal, caught in a bad position, almost lost his prey, but with his usual resourcefulness he broke out and tricked the Roman soldiers who had been set to guard the passes. The Roman army in battle array c.

The soldiers with whom Hannibal came out of the encampment to help those being pursued Hannibal, caught unawares by the Roman cavalry and light infantry, was in danger of losing his whole army, because he had been rash in sending [his soldiers] to gather corn. Mound where the combat took place e. Aufidus, river that rises in the Apennine, and flows to the Adriatic sea b. Smaller Roman quarters on the other side of the river c.

Roman horses numbering three thousand, positioned on the right wing of the army e. All the legions, which were fourteen, ordered one beside the other f. The Roman infantry, at the front of the whole army h. African soldiers positioned at the sides l. Weak soldiers deliberately placed between the Africans m. French and Spaniards, similarly weak n. African soldiers, which were the backbone of the army o. River Aufidus b. Africans, who were on the wings, behind the Romans d.

French and Spaniards, with other foot soldiers, have returned to take up the formation again, and are positioned ready to charge f. The small Roman quarters i. Psophis a city in Morea [Peloponnese], on the border with the Achaeans b. Quarters of Philip, King of Macedonia, set up on some hills opposite the city c.

River which from the east flows round the city walls d. Fortress e. Erymanthus, a large and very fast-flowing river f. Hill to the west, harsh and difficult to climb When there are some fortresses of importance in a war, one goes to great lengths to seize them, because they bring many benefits and they are taken away from the enemy, as [is shown by the problems] this city caused to Philip and the Achaeans.

The city of Sparta b. River Eurotas d. Lycurgus with two thousand Lacedaemonians e. Lacedaemonian soldiers and horsemen i. Village where Philip lodged called Amyclae l. Very wealthy Temple of Apollo Philip found a passage in an excellent way; Lycurgus, King of the Lacedaemonians, had occupied the hills above the road along which Philip wished to go, but he crossed the river, and chased the enemy from the hills first, and then defended them, and so reached the road.

Horsemen with lances on the right wing c. Cretans d. French placed at the centre e. Mercenaries f. Elephants numbering ten at the front of the army h. Foot soldiers for surrounding on both wings i. Horsemen for surrounding behind the foot soldiers on both wings k.

Shieldbearers [heavy infantry] m. French soldiers n. Well-armed soldiers o. Archers and soldiers with slings positioned outside the horses on the left wing p. Soldiers of the above-mentioned kind on the right wing q. Scythed chariots positioned in front of the whole army [r. City of Seleucia b. Hill above the city called Coryphaeum [? Western sea d. Deep valley in the middle of the city e.

A quarter of the city f. Market places g. Man-made steps used to go from the quarter up to the city h. River Orontes which rises in Mount Libanus and Antilibanus, and flows through Antioch to reach the sea near Seleucia i. The city of Antioch k. Port l. Quarters of Ptolemy, King of Egypt army intact, and that part gave his rival b. Quarters of Antiochus, King victory. Cretan horses to the right wing; the mistake is also f. Gauls and Thracians numbering four thousand l. Greek mercenaries numbering eight thousand m.

Egyptian phalanx n. On the left wing, there were 40 Elephants in front of the horses, and this was where Ptolemy was o. Cretan soldiers s. Mercenary soldiers from Greece t. Foot soldiers armed in the Macedonian manner v. Cavalry on the left wing x. Cardacian and Lydian archers y. Light infantry z. Cissians, Medians and Caramanians ii.

Arabs added to the phalanx 3. Thebes in Pharsalus b. Quarters called Helitoropium d. Quarters below the hill e. Hill above the city f. Double trenches, which joined up one quarter to another This was a great invention by Philip, who established three quarters, where he kept the army in safety and then dug the double trenches, he thus besieged the city so that no one could enter or leave.

Tarentum b. Port of Tarentum c. Fortress d. Hill which was in front of the fortress e. Trench made by Hannibal after the palisade g. Palisade beyond the trench h. Wall made by Hannibal far from the palisade of the trench towards the city i. Sea to the south, where the galleys were conveyed to besiege the fortress k. Galleys, which were conveyed through the city to the sea as I said above Here one sees the resourcefulness of Hannibal who, to lay siege to the fortress of Tarentum, conveyed the ships through the city, and set them in the sea, and so laid siege to the fortress.

New Carthage in Spain b. Double trenches facing the sea and facing the mainland d. Island in the middle of the mouth of the port which faces the Garbino [south-west wind] f. Channels, which go from one side of the island to the other g. Mouth of the port facing the Garbino h. Shore, which surrounds it i. Mount Cersoneso k. Eastern sea l. Southern sea m. Western lagoon n. Northern lagoon o. Hill where the temple of Aesculapius stood p.

Hill where the palace built by Hasdrubal stood q. Hill to the west, which is called Croni r. Double trenches on the outer part of the quarters which surrounded the lagoon as far as the sea All exploits that are attempted, which the enemy believes will not be attempted, means he will not make suitable provisions and that the assailants succeed in the feat, as happened at New Carthage which was not garrisoned, and was attacked from the lagoon, where it was most formidable but with no guards, and Scipio managed to capture it.

Mantinea, a city in Morea [Peloponnese] b. Illyrians, cuirassed soldiers and foreigners c. Infantry, the third part d. Horsemen of the city e. Temple of Neptune f. Cuirassed soldiers g. Illyrian soldiers h. Achaean legion, positioned in a circle with a space in the middle i.

Achaean horsemen positioned on the right wing k. Foreign soldiers positioned on the left wing l. Lacedaemonian soldiers positioned at the centre o. Tarentine and Lacedaemonian horses p. Ditch where the tyrant was slain r. Bridge that was over the ditch Philopoemen placed the Achaean Legions in a circular formation so that he could defend on all sides, and as Machanidas had been victorious, and was pursuing the fleeing enemies, Philopoemen, having undone the circle and changed it to a rectangular formation, with this part of the army attacked him [Machanidas] and broke his army and ordered the tyrant to be slain; here one sees the importance of having a part of the army which has not fought and which suddenly attacks the enemy unawares.

Roman legions positioned on the wings c. Spanish auxiliaries positioned in the middle who did not fight d. Cavalry positioned on the wings e. Light infantry f. Elephants positioned in front of the wings h. Africans trusted by Hasdrubal who did not fight i. Spanish auxiliaries k. Light infantry l. Cavalry positioned on the wings o. City of Utica b. Hill above Utica where two thousand Roman infantrymen were camped d. Trenches, which went from the army to the hill e. Army of Laelius and Massinissa i.

Port of Utica Scipio negotiates for an agreement with Syphax, King of the Numidians and Hasdrubal, Captain of the Carthaginians, and negotiates at length, but concludes nothing, and he spies on the quarters and undoes everything they had concluded, and he attacks their camps at night and burns them and cuts the armies to pieces. Light infantry c. Principes d. Triarii e. Italian horses f. Numidian horses g. Quarters of Syphax and Hasdrubal h. Celtiberian infantry i.

Numidian infantry k. Carthaginian infantry l. Carthaginian horses m. Numidian horses A band of Celtiberians spurred on Syphax King of the Numidians to do battle with Scipio, saying that they were many more than they [actually] were, and on doing battle they were circumvented and defeated. Velites and hastati placed together e. Principes deployed with spaces between them, thus leaving a corridor for the elephants f.

Triarii, also leaving a corridor for the Elephants and so as to be able to enter the spaces between the principes afterwards g. The Roman cavalry commander Laelius on the left wing h. The Numidian cavalry commander Massinissa on the right wing i.

Elephants numbering eighty at the front of the army l. Mercenaries from various nations numbering ten thousand m. African and Carthaginian soldiers whom Hannibal trusted n. Soldiers who had come from Italy, whom Hannibal trusted little and were placed away from the others by more than a stade, which is over one hundred and twenty-five paces o. Carthaginian horses placed on the said wing p.

The right wing of the Macedonian phalanx c. Shieldbearers [heavy infantry] d. Thessalian horses e. The Roman left wing f. Aetolian horses g. The Roman right wing Because Philip went with his army divided, some earlier and some later, with no order, and the Romans being well ordered, he did battle with them and lost.

The soldiers also used for their subject the armies of the Ancients, we would like to defence a shield of average size, which had in the begin with the legions, as that part which when used middle an oval-shaped iron boss with two other irons: in battle enabled the Ancients to be victorious over one at the top to fend off blows from above; the other as many as they wished, or as the nature of things at the bottom to protect the shield so it would not would allow.

I will say, therefore, that according to break on falling to the ground. They carried the said Polybius, the legion of the Ancients, and especially in shield covered with hide, and only uncovered it when the early times after Rome had chased out the kings, they were about to fight; and these were the defensive consisted of four thousand two hundred foot soldiers weapons. The offensive weapons were a sword, an and three hundred horsemen. The light-armed soldiers the wound, the wound was made larger and more were all called velites, and there were one thousand painful.

When the soldiers engaged their enemies two hundred of them. They carried helmets, swords, in close combat, they first threw one of these javelins bows, slings and crossbows and all kinds of thrown and they kept the other in their hand to fight with weapons, but wore no armour for their protection it, but when in difficulty, they dropped the shafted other than the helmet. The heavy-armed soldiers weapon to the ground and put hand to their swords. Some say they also had armour on their nor stirrups and they wielded the same weapons legs — and I too am of this opinion — because Gioseffo which the foot soldiers carried but with the addition Ebreo [Flavius Josephus], speaking of a Roman soldier of some spears which they threw by hand: some had who was running through the marble-paved square an assegai and others a bow; and in this way, they in front of the porticoes of the Temple of Solomon, fought either close up or from afar.

The Barbarians said that he slipped because of his armed feet, and fought on scythed chariots and led elephants into fell to the ground and was slain by the Jews who were battle. But as I only wish to discuss the Romans and defending the said porticoes.

To remedy and then into centuriae and lastly maniples. Every this disadvantage, Attilius strengthened the middle two maniples made a cohort, and two cohorts were part of his army with many soldiers in the row and the fifth of the legion, which was divided into three to do this he closed up the front of his army.

The It must be said that Caesar never mentions if there first squadron had two thousand and forty-eight were spaces between legions, or that the first could infantrymen, and these, as we said above, were called absorb the second, or the second absorb the third, but hastati; the second had the same number; and the that each time he ordered the army, he divided it into third one thousand and twenty-four.

The rest which three battalions. Nor does he ever mention the hastati, amounted to six thousand one hundred infantrymen, principes or triarii, but he may have presumed one or were the said velites. The seven hundred and thirty the other, and although I cannot confirm it, the way horsemen were divided into many alae [wings] they were deployed in battle could have varied.

But occupied, by length and by height by length we mean the enemy having surrounded him, at times some in rows, by height in [vertical] lines. We also know squads left the circle and rushed out at the enemy, that when the army marched, it was ordered so that who finding their place vacant, with ranged weapons each soldier occupied six feet and that the whole front wounded both those who had come out and those of the legion was feet and, when the captain who had remained exposed on the flanks.

Caesar ordered the army when they were closed up tight, each soldier occupied to form a very long front and engaged in battle with a space of one and a half feet and the whole front the enemy; and since some squads left the formation was feet long. To remedy that the men of both the armies deployed in the battle this disorder Caesar sent an order to the whole army occupied two-thirds of the area and the other third that no soldier should leave his position by more than was between the two armies, and each space was six four braccia.

This example shows book, ordered the army and said that the front was that the battalions were very far apart, although continuous with no spaces. And in the seventh chapter Vegetius says that the rows were six feet apart, so that of the second book, where he formed the legion, he the soldiers, when throwing pila could run forward placed five of the ten cohorts at the front and five at to hurl them with greater force, and so if the battalion the rear, and only made two battalions.

Nonetheless, had eight men per line, it occupied fifty feet, and Polybius, in that passage in the seventeenth book, in if sixteen, it occupied ninety feet. He also says that the phalanx only had Legate in Asia, did in the battle with Pharnaces one time and one place, and the legions several times King of Pontus who had ordered the army between and several places. Domitian closed up the space in the I wished to give these examples serving both middle, so that the legions could go into the trenches arguments, since some seem to suggest that there were to find the enemy.

Polybius says they had some no spaces in the bodies of legions, and some say there soldiers, both infantrymen and horsemen, who were were. I have made this drawing, therefore, with spaces called extraordinarii infantrymen and horsemen, so that both can be seen and that the truth will be of which there were eight hundred infantrymen known and my readers can judge for themselves.

No one says how far the said battalions of the army and sometimes accompanied the consul. Once the army had good ancient captains who with very few soldiers been decuriated and condecuriated, therefore, and often defeated and overwhelmed very large armies. There were also another two kinds of mutations, and well-disciplined militia: therefore through his one was done towards the enemy, and so this was knowledge and valour — if his esteemed thoughts are that the soldier turned his left side, the other was favoured as they deserve to be by those who can away from the enemy, by turning the right.

Next they — it must be hoped that the ancient military discipline proceeded to teach them the conversion [conversione], can still be restored to that greater perfection, which which was done, when the formation was constricted it may have had at other times. I will flank had been; once this was done, they ordered them therefore move on from this because, for a better if required, however to return to how they were understanding, we must explain some terms, such as before the conversion, and this was called the what one would mean by decuriating [decuriare], diversion [diversione].

In addition to this, they condecuriating [condecuriare], and others. Once the army was whole battalion move on the right flank or the left decuriated, or once the squads had been made, flank, and this movement was called the deflection it was necessary to conducuriate them, which means [diflessione]. Three kinds of these Labienus and Petreius with a very large cavalry and manoeuvres were used by the Greeks, one was called light infantrymen, and to defend himself was forced the Persian or the Cretan, the second the Macedonian to put his men in a round formation.

They also and the last the Laconian. The Persian or Cretan was taught solders to close up, contract and spread out in done by keeping the whole squad in the same place both the lines and the rows. The Macedonian was done by moving tenth legion from the left wing to the right, but found the second in front of the first, the third in front of the twelfth legion was missing many centurions and the second, the fourth in front of the third and so on other soldiers and in such a tight corner they could with each soldier until the rear guide was the first in not use their arms and were already beginning to be the decuria, and then each turned his face to where surrounded on the flank.

The situation eventually his back had been, and so the decurion came to be having become desperate, as soon as he arrived, first and stood in his usual place. But this kind of he stood in the front ranks and ordered the soldiers manoeuvre, showing in some ways a flight from the to spread out both in the rows and in the lines to enemy, in addition to losing ground, did not seem occupy convenient spaces.

He also ordered the seventh very laudable, whereas in the Laconian everything legion to join the twelfth and, turning the front proceeded in the opposite direction: with the enemy to face the enemy to avoid being surrounded, they at the rear, all the men turned their face to that part valorously attacked. All the measures thus having so that the rear guide became the first, but the second been very diligently put into effect and with that immediately moved in front of him and then the greater haste which such danger demanded, he very third and so on until the decurion moved in front honourably won the day and this was only because of everyone else to his former position, and in this those soldiers were well drilled in military actions.

There were Polybius writes in the first book of the African war. I cannot, however, pass over in silence how much those excellent captains diligently drilled the soldiers to handle all those kinds of weapons which were suited to their needs, using bigger and more heavier ones than those used in battles, fully aware that, being unable or not knowing how to use those arms which each will have for his defence would only bring each harm and ruin.

These, then, and other military movements and drills as we said were diligently taught to the soldiers. Therefore it should not be very surprising that on many occasions and with small numbers they defeated very large and very fierce armies. There can also be no doubt that if the captains of our day trained their soldiers in the same drills, movements and instructions, these soldiers would achieve that perfection of the ancients, who were no more than men.

For whatever reason they [the captains of our day] do not wish, or do not know not how, to do so, they should not marvel if in their ventures they so rarely even with very large armies achieve their desired end. Extraordinarii cavalry, who undertook o. Hastati of the Roman legions. Porta Praetoria. Principes of the said legions. Porta Decumana, where the of the Consul and were four hundred q. Triarii of the said legions.

Horsemen of the legions. Quarters of the Tribunes, who were i. Extraordinarii infantry, eight hundred s. Road called the Quintana, where heads of the legions. Quarters of the Prefects, who were and were positioned like those above t. Gates to the square where the soldiers heads of the confederates. Select Horsemen, who were all men k. Quaestorium, where the soldiers were v. Edge of the embankment of distinguished valour, and were two paid. Praetorian Forum, where the Consul x. Place where victualers and others were.

Infantry numbering four hundred exercised justice. Ditch which went round the quarters. Infantry of the confederates. Cavalry of the confederates. Right wing. Select cavalry no. Left wing. Select infantrymen no. Hastati are the first battalion. Macedonian Phalanx. Principes are the second battalion. Right wing of the Phalanx. Triarii third battalion. Left wing of the said [Phalanx]. Cavalry on neither one or the other p.

Cavalry of the Phalanx. Light infantrymen also [part] of it. Light infantry. Men placed in reserve. Extraordinarii cavalry no. Extraordinarii infantry number Lake Leman. Wall, which Caesar built as far as Mount Jura. Swiss quarters. Boats and rafts full of Swiss [Helvetii]. Mount Jura. Romans, who defend the banks of the Rhone. First and second battalions b. The two Legions of novice soldiers, the Swiss, who regroup in defence. Third battalion of the Romans, which d.

Tulingi and Boii, who try f. Swiss rearguard, who were Tulingi to circumvent the Romans. Baggage of the Swiss army. The Swiss, who retreat and regroup in defence. Auxiliary soldiers, who were h. Light infantry on the right and left wings. River Axona [Aisne].

Bridge made and fortified by Caesar. Trenches made by Caesar in the plain so as not to be circumvented by the Belgians. Belgian army. Battle between the cavalries of the two armies. Marsh between one army and the other. Cavalry and light infantry, sent by Caesar over the bridge, with which he fought the enemy and they fought him back.

Mountain, or hill, where Caesar i. Twelfth Legion, which was attacked s. Horses of the Treviri, which return b. River Sebino [Sabis], which was by the Nervii. Seventh Legion attacked by the same affairs. Wooded hills, where the Nervii were Nervii. Nervii which attacked the Twelfth d. Two legions, which guarded n. Nervii which attacked the Seventh the baggage train. The Roman horses, which fled.

Sixth Legion, which fights g. Tenth Legion, which fought the Veromandui. Eighth Legion, which fights h. Ninth Legion, which also fought the same Veromandui. River Rhine. River Meuse. Two beams joined together, one and c. Beams, two feet thick on each side, the more the bridge was laden, the more k. Two of those beams which, joined a half feet thick, very sharp at the end, which made up the breadth of the it joined together and was firm. One of the braces. One of the said beams.

The beams laid along the length of the l. The end of the beam that made up the and distant two feet from each other. The braces, which were open, that is bridge which were covered with poles breadth of the bridge. The other two beams placed opposite separated from each other, and bound and lattice. The poles placed downstream, which, mentioned [beams], and distant inner side and the other on the outer inclined and joined to the whole from them by a span of forty feet, side; one above and the other below the structure, resisted the force of the river.

The poles placed on the upstream side of the water. The form of one of the said beams by [the braces] made the work firmer, sent tree trunks or boats down the river itself. Carriages with baggage c. Woods, where the French lay in ambush to attack the Romans. Defences, which the French made round their quarters for a circuit of ten miles.

French battalions, which were going to attack the quarters. The French camp. Stream, which was between one camp and the other. The Roman army sent into battle. French army. Some Roman cohorts set to guard the baggage. Beams laid on the ground, at a distance of two feet from each other, and forty feet long.

This was the thickness of the wall. Stones two feet long, placed between the beams. Earth placed on and between the beams. Beams laid lengthways to bind the other beams. Beams set upright, which bound and made the whole structure strong. Aedui infantry, which was going b. Wall, which the French made halfway up the hill below Gergovia. That legion which Caesar set in an ambush.

Ditch, which went from the large camp to the small camp. The French army sent into battle b. French men, who went to aid their d. French quarters. French men, who were going f. Pontoon bridge, where the Roman to Melodunum. Five cohorts, which were going to Melodunum with all the battalions. Boats sent by Labienus up the river, creating commotion, towards Melodunum.

French cavalry. Roman army. First battalion made up of hastati and principes. Second battalion of triarii. Third battalion of light infantry. French who were encamped between the wall and the city. Wall, which the French made on the hill below Alesia. Holes with driven piles, which were called gigli [lilies]. Spikes, which were scattered among the defences.

Pieces of trees a foot long, with some iron hooks set on them. Trenches which Caesar made round Alesia. Place between the trenches, where the army camped. The trench, which faced out against the enemy that had come to aid. Quarters of the French, who had come to aid.

Field a mile long, where there was a fine big battle between the cavalry of one side and of the other. Infantry, which was in Alesia, and which attacked the trenches from the inside. Seventh Legion. Eighth Legion.

Ninth Legion. Eleventh Legion, which was of novice soldiers, and had served eight pays. Cavalry, which protected the flanks of the Legions. Light infantry, which placed the carriages in the middle. Marsh between one hill and another. Double trenches, which were round the quarters.

Second quarters, which Caesar set closer to the enemy. The enemy which was on the higher hill in a strong position. Fire made by the French in front of the army in order to flee. The city of Brundisium [Brindisi] h. At the shore the water was shallow in Apulia. Port of Brundisium.

Island opposite the port entrance. Mounds of earth made by Caesar at the mouth of the port on which to place some machines to defend the entrance. Bastions, which faced the city. Embankment, which was on the opposite site towards the sea, which enclosed the fort. Mouth of the port. Rafts which Caesar made to close the port entrance.

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