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One obvious factor is the negative reactions of feminists, who have openly denounced the way Vessantara has been held up as a moral exemplar for giving away his wife and children e. One monk specifically objected to the absurdity of a beggar being able to outsmart royal guards. A female store owner in a northeastern city said that the younger generation is interested in video games and movies rather than ancient folklore, adding that young people prefer shopping in malls to sitting around listening to monks preach.
The most frequent reason I heard for this shift in interest centered on the growth of science and rationalism in the face of mythology and folktales. As a man with a PhD in engineering who runs a computer software business in Bangkok suggested to me, the belief in rational science was overcoming silly superstition.
In the United States, celebrations of Halloween witches, Santa Claus, and the Easter Bunny have not only not died out but appear to be steadily expanding. If the growth of scientific rationalism and urbanism is not in itself a compelling explanation for the declining interest in the Vessantara Jataka, other people I interviewed suggested more mundane logistical considerations.
Several interviewees in the central region mentioned the difficulty of finding monks who knew how to recite the various chapters. Another person mentioned the expense involved: for example, one of the famous monks from Petchabun was paid , baht to travel to Suphanburi province to recite only one chapter in a Vessantara Jataka recitation. A monk noted that lay organizers play an important role, but nowadays many laity do not know how to organize a Vessantara Jataka.
When I asked northern monks why the Vessantara Jataka had declined in their region but not in the northeast, they suggested that northern performances involved greater expense and greater expertise. I do not find the expense arguments compelling since northeastern celebrations also involve considerable time, effort, and expense. Although the issue of expertise is relevant, the northeast has developed a center for training monks. As in northern Thailand, villagers in northeastern Thailand have faced similar issues in the use of a regional dialect, the decline in the number of monks and novices at local temples, and the rise of secular education; but northeasterners have maintained a strong recitation tradition.
The reasoning behind these logistical explanations is circular; if monks and laity found recitations to be important, they would continue to support them. Patrick Jory provides the most detailed and thought-provoking explanation for the declining popularity of Vessantara Jataka recitations.
The modern Chakri dynasty was founded by Rama I in First, with the expansion of a more stable administrative bureaucracy the state no longer depended on oaths of allegiance and other such public rituals to govern. Second, given the growing presence of European observers, the nineteenth-century Thai court was increasingly embarrassed by the mythological content of Buddhist legends. In its defense of Buddhism against Christian missionizing, the court sought to emphasize the life of the historical Buddha over the jataka stories.
Jory notes that King Rama V provided an introduction to a collection of thirty jatakas in in which the king drew upon the work of the British Pali scholar T. The king even flaunted the ancient prediction about the future of Buddhism, suggesting that the Vessantara Jataka was most likely to be the first to disappear rather than the last Jory , King Mongkut came to the throne in During his reign as king, the Thammayut order became increasingly influential.
A fourth reason was active court suppression of jataka recitations in the face of a growing number of millenarian revolts at the turn of the twentieth century. Jory sees the Vessantara Jataka as a double-edged sword. The ambiguity in the political discourse of the Vessantara Jataka made it possible not just for kings but also for local rulers, local monks, and other local leaders to lay claim to being incarnations of the future Buddha as well; such claims provided the justifications for revolts against the crown.
With the increase in the number of revolts in the countryside, the court would no longer have found the Vessantara Jataka an effective discourse of authority. First, Jory presumes a top-down flow of political opinion-formation without a full consideration of the perspective of the peasantry. Just because courts or local rulers sought to buttress their political legitimacy through ritual does not mean they succeeded.
The occurrence of peasant revolts both before and during the early Chakri Dynasty suggests the possibility that political legitimacy was often, if not always, problematic. Thus, even before the expansion of the administrative bureaucracy, oaths of allegiance and other such public rituals were never sufficient to suppress public unrest. While Jory has conducted pioneering and important work in the use of the Vessantara Jataka in Thai statecraft, we need to find a fuller explanation for its rise and variable demise.
Of Rabelais and Comedy I believe that a closer re-reading of relevant court edicts suggests the court was concerned with comic recitations, a position that should not be conflated with court support for serious recitations. Court edicts themselves reveal both the widespread popularity of comic performances Figure 3. Excerpt from temple scroll showing Jujaka, who evidently died happy.
From Sisaket province, dated However they do not respect the story as part of the Dhamma. They listen only to the comical poetry, which is of no benefit to them. Some of the monks who recite the story have not studied the Tipitaka. They know only the parts, which have been put into song-verse kap klorn , which they then recite in a comical and obscene manner.
They are interested only in fame and riches. They have never desired to study and pass on the knowledge of the Dhamma. This is damaging to the religion and encourages people to be careless in teaching the Dhamma. Such people will suffer long torment in the four hells. So as of this time the king orders that monks who give sermons and the people who listen to the recitation of the Maha Chat Jataka must recite and listen to only the Pali canonical verses and the Commentary.
The recitation of and listening to sermons in song-verse or the expression of buffoonish words for comic purposes is strictly forbidden. Violators of the law, along with their relatives, were liable for punishment Jory b, The king evidently objected not to recitations of the Vessantara Jataka but to comedic performances. If the court condemned comedy, what was the politics behind their concern?
I quote it in some detail so that readers can contemplate the royal critique for themselves: It is the traditional custom of Siam. By so doing, the supporters of these exhibitions think to perform a meritorious work, and deem the money spent upon them, to be as a tribute of honour paid to religion.
However, there is no lack of people who fail to see and believe that the practice of having such farcical shows can be really meritorious. Now, here is the story. One preaching hall had remained deserted for nearly a whole season, no recital of the Maha Chat having been held in it.
A layman felt sorry for this, and started to go around from house to house asking the people to take up participation tickets. No regret would be felt for money devoted to such a useful end, whilst the same cannot be said of money spent upon buffoonish exhibitions of the Maha Chat.
However, comedic performances continued over the course of the nineteenth century despite these royal edicts and opinions. Official objections to comic performances of the Vessantara Jataka continued well into the twentieth century, ironically suggesting their continuing popularity. As evidenced in the multiple royal edicts seeking to suppress it, humor was clearly a major component in the popular appeal of the Vessantara Jataka throughout Thailand. Throughout the nineteenth century, when the court was trying to suppress comedic recitations of the Vessantara Jataka, the court itself was sponsoring its own state performances.
Consequently I would suggest that the court took umbrage at the displays of humor but not at the jataka itself. What was so objectionable about comedy? Scholars from Sigmund Freud and Henri Bergson to Mikhail Bakhtin and others have tried to analyze humor, but its roots remain elusive.
Donna Goldstein provides insight into the absurdist and black humor used by women in Brazilian urban shantytowns in the face of trauma and tragedy, and Steve Lipman describes the use of humor during the Holocaust. Similarly, James C.
Indeed, there is a growing literature noting the role of humor in political brinkmanship e. The recent translation of the once popular tale Khun Chang Khun Phaen by Chris Baker and Pasuk Phongphaichit serves to remind us that nineteenth-century Southeast Asian audiences enjoyed a bawdy sense of humor that puritanical audiences of today find shocking. The court may have sought to suppress the sexual and scatological elements in a religious ceremonial occasion in order to maintain respectability in the eyes of European dignitaries and puritanical American missionaries.
Formal recitations in court settings may indeed have been intended to glorify divine kings, but popular performances may have mocked royal and ecclesiastical pretentiousness. In one of the few surviving nineteenth-century descriptions of humor, Ernest Young suggests that not only was popular humor bawdy, but it had an edginess that came from political critique. As various scholars have noted, villagers believed that by listening to the Vessantara Jataka they would improve their chances of being reborn in the time of the Maitreya Buddha, a time of social justice and compassion for all.
Grounded in his royalist reading, Jory sees the jataka as providing legitimacy for rulers, be they actual or aspiring. The Phra Malai Sutra, which was often read before Vessantara Jataka recitations, has passages that served as humorous critiques of those in power. They hung way down to the ground like a shoulder bag.
Whenever he wanted to go somewhere [the hungry ghost would] fling his testicles over his shoulder, stagger under their weight, and reel from side to side. The Traiphum has similar colorful passages suggestive of peasant political critiques and the hopes for future retribution.
The yama guardians hold these throwing and stabbing weapons; they chase the hell beings, throw at them, stab them, and beat them with these weapons. These beings suffer great pain and anguish that is too much for them to bear. In this hell there is a large river called Vetarani in which the water is extremely salty. When the hell beings flee and try to escape, the river has in it a tangle of intertwining rattan stems and vines.
The rattan has thorns as huge as hoes that are formed of fiery red iron and are constantly aflame. When the hell beings flee into the water they come against the thorns of the rattan, and their bodies are cut to pieces just as if someone was taking a very sharp knife and cutting them everywhere. Under the rattan vine are huge, long spikes made of red fiery iron. The flames burn the bodies of the hell beings like the fire burns trees in the middle of the forest.
They suffer great anguish. While the vivid descriptions of hell presented in the Traiphum appear to be intended to impress its readers with their horror, one can also imagine how they might be integrated into comic routines. Understanding the politics of humor is an underexplored avenue into history. The fact of royal and monastic efforts to suppress this humor raises the possibility that the court and monastic orders were themselves the comedic targets.
Any of the jataka characters could have conceivably been turned into comedic foils. In another example that might seem heretical today, Vessantara himself might have been made a target. Although we must allow the possibility that comedic traditions developed differently across the Theravada Buddhist regions, evidence based on the northern Thai performances suggests that the humor was centered not on the revered Vessantara but primarily on the irreverent figure of Jujaka.
The survival of the northern portrayal of Jujaka provides a window into the humor among the peasants of the nineteenth century, and in turn it raises the question of why the comedic tradition continued to be robust in the northern region but not in the other regions. The serendipity of a newspaper headline back in led me on unanticipated trips through the central, northeastern, and northern regions of Thailand. By paying attention to Jujaka, I reconstruct a comedic, peasant-based reading of the Vessantara Jataka to add to the sober monastic and monarchical readings already extant.
By embedding the text in its historical context, my reading revives the story of the tensions between monks, monarchs, and the masses and transforms the Vessantara Jataka from an essentialized homogeneous text into a cudgel brandished by rich and poor in their struggles to shape society, at both the village and national levels. Understanding the historical processes that molded the interpretations and performances of the Vessantara Jataka helps to provide an explanation of its regional divergences in Thailand.
Thus the politics of humor is an important element in understanding both the vicissitudes of Thai society and the Vessantara Jataka. My approach is interdisciplinary, combining my long-standing interest in history and political anthropology with research in folklore and religious studies. Since my first trip in , I have lived in Thailand for a total of some eight years.
Most of my time has been spent in villages in northern Thailand, but I also lived in Bangkok for two years and spent nearly a year in Khon Kaen in northeastern Thailand in —97 as a Fulbright Scholar. These earlier stays have enabled me to develop a wide network of friendships to draw upon for this research.
After preliminary interviews with current and former tujok in the summer of , I conducted further interviews in northern Thailand in the summer of I spent the summer of interviewing monks and villagers in northeastern and central regions; I conducted more interviews in March , and again in the summers of and — I also collected vernacular recensions, tapes, and VCD recordings of recitations. All quotations from Thai printed materials, tapes, performances, and interviews are my translations.
I divide this book into two main parts. Part I, divided into three chapters, focuses on regional variation in the performances and interpretations of the Vessantara Jataka in the central, northeastern, and northern regions, respectively. Chapter 1 focuses on the central Thai court and the central region.
By foregrounding the boat imagery of the Kumarn chapter, the jataka became more aligned with the political and metaphysical emphases of the Thammayut movement. The court met with some success in implementing its interpretation in the central region. In chapter 2 I turn to northeastern Thailand, where villagers have maintained their tradition of annual recitations, albeit in a subdued form in which humor has been largely diverted.
The northeastern emphasis on the Nakornkan chapter, family reunification, and village unity embeds a very ambiguous attitude toward the state, reflecting a de facto detente established between the villagers and the state. In chapter 3, I describe the northern interpretation, highlighting both its focus on the Jujaka chapter and its broader delights in the exploits of the Jujaka character. Rather than glorifying royalty, the northern emphasis on Jujaka enables monks to address the earthly, non-royalist challenges facing villagers in everyday life.
In part II, also divided into three chapters, I describe the historico-political process by which each region came to develop a different interpretation of the Vessantara Jataka, and I bring our understanding of the jataka up to the present.
Because comedic performances of the Vessantara Jataka endured in their most robust form in northern Thailand, we are able to gain insight into the broader peasant imaginaire of the nineteenth century. However, the court was positioned quite differently in each of the three regions. The Bangkok court was able to exert its influence in central and northeastern Thailand much earlier than in the northern region. In chapter 6 I summarize the ongoing transformations in Vessantara Jataka performances, describing its new relevance for the promotion of wealth, tourism, and cultural heritage.
As we pack our bags to embark on this journey through space and time, let me review some preliminary assumptions. First, given that the sources currently available allow us to travel back in time little more than a century, I am basing my assumption that comedic recitations were widespread by the early nineteenth century on the following: common sense, the passing remarks of late seventeenth-century European visitors to Ayutthaya, nineteenth-century court edicts, and the few surviving bawdy temple mural paintings.
Furthermore, I am assuming that the Jujaka character is the primary focus of this humor. Second, I regret that our journey does not include the south. The reasons for this omission are a lack of sufficient information in existing secondary sources and my own lack of any particular expertise in the south.
However, if I were to venture some preliminary guesses, I would anticipate more similarities with the central region than either the north or the northeast. In all three regions, monks recite two versions of the jataka, one in Pali called the Khathaphan and one in vernacular Thai, the dialect varying with the region. These dots seem random when viewed up close but form recognizable patterns when seen from a distance.
Even the same performer never fully replicates a previous interpretation. Yet when various texts and renditions of them are compared in each of the three regions we will visit, overall patterns emerge. In developing my portrayal of overall regional patterns, I am drawing not only on sample textual recensions but also on scores of interviews with monks and villagers in each of these areas. We are now ready to begin our journey into history.
Part I Diversity in Humor 1 Central Thailand Humor Defeated This part of the book begins in central Thailand, where glimpses of Jujaka and his comedy are fleeting, disappearing behind the bedazzling glamour of royal recitations of the Vessantara Jataka at formal state functions.
The jataka was once very widely popular in the region. Its popularity continued well after the court was re-established in Bangkok. This then took more the character of a pochade of Christmas mummers than of a solemn religious ceremony. The sole object was to obtain effect, for as soon as the new literary production met with public approval its author and expounder became famous and the exhibition in general request. Much has changed over the course of the twentieth century.
Central Thai audiences today hold their hands in the formal wai position of respect as they listen to the sacred recitations; their expressions are solemn, meditative, and emotionless. At a public recitation I observed at Wat Samien Nari in Bangkok in the summer of , the temple committee had even invited the central Thai monk who was famous for his performance of Jujaka.
The audience I observed at another recitation at Siriraj Hospital was similarly solemn. The expectation that a performance of the Vessantara Jataka be enjoyable has clearly faded among modern central Thai audiences. This chapter is divided into four sections. The first section presents evidence showing significant court involvement in recitations from the founding of the Bangkok dynasty in to the present.
The second section notes the important role of members of the royal family in shaping a stately, sober interpretation of the jataka. By downplaying the Jujaka chapter and foregrounding maritime imagery in the Kumarn chapter, the court provided a more metaphysical interpretation of the jataka, portraying it as a boat to cross the sea of suffering. These two sections rely heavily on the account of Colonel Gerolamo Emilio Gerini, an Italian who spent twenty-five years in Bangkok — and whose account I consider particularly reliable since it was proofread by none other than King Rama V himself.
The third section describes recitations and interpretations in central Thailand, highlighting their overall similarities with those of the court in Bangkok. Jataka performance in honor of the birthdays of the Thai king and queen. The monk recites a chapter in a forest setting, surrounded by mounds of coconuts, banana stalks, lily pads, money trees, and pyramidal offerings made from flower blossoms. Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, July 20—22, This chapter shows how the Bangkok court succeeded in damping down the laughter Jujaka might have elicited, but for the reasons why it objected to this humor we will have to track Jujaka into other regions in subsequent chapters.
Royal State Perfor mances Although some have argued that court support for the Vessantara Jataka ended by the late nineteenth century, this section will show that court support for formal recitations has been maintained into the present. State recitations at the royal temple of Wat Phra Kaew continue to this day, and a state-supported recitation also occurs at Phutthamonthon, a national Buddhist park located west of Bangkok.
Wat Phra Kaew Emerald Buddha Temple The importance of the Vessantara Jataka in statecraft is made clear by the maintenance of the long-standing tradition of its triannual recitation at the royal court temple. The court temple of the modern Thai kingdom is Wat Phra Kaew, the popular tourist destination located in the compound of the Grand Palace in Bangkok.
This royal temple has long been the site for the most important state rituals for the Bangkok court. Today, an excerpt of the jataka is recited three times during Buddhist Lent each year at Wat Phra Kaew, notably by lay officials and not by monks. State recitations can be dated at least as far back as the Ayutthayan court. According to Gerini, King Songtham, a former monk and accomplished poet who ruled Ayutthaya from to , wrote a version of the Vessantara Jataka designed for thamnong suat, or chanting style Mahachat Khamluang.
Thereafter court lay officials chanted his version at the royal court temple at Wat Sri Sanphet in Ayutthaya. When the court was moved to Bangkok, court officials and pupils of royal schools recited this version at both Wat Phra Kaew and Wat Sri Sanphet every holy day. However, during the reign of Rama V, the recitations were reduced to three Gerini  , 23— According to Khun Somchai Kuakoon, who is himself one of the lay specialists kharawaat involved in chanting, most of the Ayutthayan text was lost when the city was sacked, and only eight sections of the Mahaphon chapter survived.
Consequently at Wat Phra Kaew today, only the surviving eight sections of the Mahaphon chapter of the Vessantara Jataka are recited. Considered the palladium of the modern Thai kingdom, the Emerald Buddha was captured from Vientiane, Laos, in by the future Rama I and brought to Thonburi, where it was initially enshrined in the palace temple of King Taksin.
Obviously recitations for the Emerald Buddha would not have occurred in the Ayutthayan kingdoms since these kings never possessed the image. Consequently it appears the modern practice of reciting the Vessantara Jataka during the rainy season at Wat Phra Kaew in Bangkok is an amalgam of the Ayutthayan practice of reciting the jataka at the most sacred royal temple and reverence for the Emerald Buddha itself.
Initially there were only two seasonal costumes; these were made for the Emerald Buddha by King Rama I—one for the summer season and one for the rainy season. King Rama III r. The chanting of the Vessantara Jataka only coincides with the changing of the robes for the beginning of the rainy season; it is not chanted on the occasion of the other two robe changes. Although the king and now the crown prince performs the robe-changing ceremony, the king is only present for the first of the three occasions during the rainy season when the excerpt from the Vessantara Jataka is chanted see also Wells , In the past, court officials organized the jataka recitation at Wat Phra Kaew, but this role has now been turned over to the Religious Affairs Department Krom Kaan Saasanaa.
On the days when the king or his representative comes, the lay reciters begin chanting in the morning so some of it has already been completed by the time the king arrives. On those days, the chanters wear white jongkraben-style pants and white dress jackets with white cloths across their chests. On days when the king is not in attendance, they wear simpler white pants and shirts.
Chanting the excerpt today takes less than two hours. Public State Recitations In addition to the triannual formal chanting of an excerpt during Buddhist Lent by lay officials, a second tradition appears to have developed at Wat Phra Kaew over the course of the second half of the nineteenth century—namely, a public recitation by monks of the full thirteen chapters.
I stumbled upon this now defunct annual monastic recitation by accident. He insisted that the recitation of the Vessantara Jataka had not been held annually or in association with the changing of the robes for as long as he could remember. Wat Phra Kaew is not a temple with monks, so of course any monastic recitation would involve monks from elsewhere. Wat Prayoon is its shortened form. Prayurawong died in at the age of sixty-eight.
Of his forty-seven children, many held positions of high rank. These recitations appear to have ended by the s. When I asked Phra Rajathammawaathii, a senior monk at Wat Prayoon, why the recitations had ended, he said that when the main lay organizer at his temple died, no one else was able to continue organizing the recitations.
Clearly this explanation is insufficient; other lay organizers could have been found. For both economic and political reasons, the new government likely wanted to curtail this quasi-royalist recitation. Special State Occasions In addition to the triannual lay recitation and annual monastic recitations at Wat Phra Kaew, the court sponsored particularly lavish recitations on special state occasions.
One such occasion was the founding of the new capital in Bangkok in The year marked the millennial anniversary of the Chulasakarat calendar, which began in ce. Rama I gave on a lesser scale than King Prasat Thong, but the amount was nonetheless apparently impressive. Special state recitations also took place in and Gerini does not explain the circumstances prompting these recitations, but he provides details of the recitation and notes that it surpassed the ceremony. The recitation began on November 7 and lasted two days.
It took place in the Grand Palace, with three senior priests each reciting one-third of the Pali Khathaphan. Although the decorations and the performance inside the throne hall would only have been witnessed by participants inside the court, the spectacular offerings would have been visible to the broader public. On the second day, the gifts were no less extravagant.
On this day, the thirteen chapters were recited in Thai. The supreme patriarch sangharaja who resided at Wat Mahathat recited the first chapter, and Phra Phanarat of Wat Pho recited the final chapter Gerini  , Different members of the royal family assumed responsibility for preparing the krajaats, or offering baskets, for each of the thirteen monks.
They were then escorted in a grand royal procession, either in palanquins or in boats, back to their temples. Each krajaat was a pyramidal structure comprised of five or seven layers, thirty-three feet wide at the bottom and as much as forty-seven feet in height.
Eight companies of body guards tamruat and government serfs phrailuang had erected sheds to protect the krajaat from the sun and rain. Another grand recitation took place in , on the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of the founding of Bangkok.
Thus evidence indicates that recitations of the Vessantara Jataka have remained an important element of royal statecraft. The practice of court representatives chanting an excerpt at Wat Phra Kaew continues to the present. Although less lavish than in the nineteenth century, royally sponsored recitations have been re-established at Phutthamonthon, a government park opened in in celebration of the 2,th year of the Buddhist Era.
According to a senior staff member there, recitations of the Vessantara Jataka began there in about and are held during Buddhist Lent. Members of the royal family, notably Princess Sirindhorn, continue to host chapters. Thus in the princess hosted the Matsi chapter in memory of her grandmother. In she hosted the Maharaat chapter in honor of her fiftieth birthday.
Recently Princess Chulabhorn came, hosting the Jujaka chapter. Novice Recitations Further evidence of royal support of the Vessantara Jataka is exemplified through novice recitations. Although novice recitations were once widespread, they survived the longest among royalty and other elite families. The poor no longer ask their friends to visit their houses to listen to the thousand stanzas. In the case of the crown princes, the ceremonies took place at the royal chapel in the Grand Palace phra thinang song tham Gerini  , The young novices were brought to the chapel from the monasteries at which they were residing Gerini  , 35— When a crown prince performed his novice recitation, the ceremonies were extraordinarily lavish and very public spectacles.
The offerings for the and novice ordinations were even more spectacular, the framework for both structured as Chinese junks. Such novice recitations suggest that the Vessantara Jataka recitations continued to be an important part of the lives of both members of the court and other elite families well into the twentieth century. A senior monk in Suphanburi recalled that parents were still hosting novice recitations in the s. The noted Buddhist intellectual Sulak Sivaraksa — informed me that he himself recited a chapter for his parents when he was a novice.
King Rama IV, despite his role in founding the Thammayut reform sect, recited the Matsi chapter for his novitiate and wrote editions of several chapters, including the Sakabap chapter, which was recited by his son when he became crown prince at his own novice ceremony. Similarly, King Rama V, despite his modern attitudes regarding administration and philosophy, continued to support recitations during his reign.
He had his son recite a chapter as crown prince for his novitiate in and asked his half brother to recite a chapter on the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of Bangkok in Although Thammayut temples generally did not perform Vessantara Jataka recitations, the royally supported Mahanikai temples continued to do so. Instead, the court took steps to establish an approved edition of the jataka, with members of the court actively involved in writing most of its chapters. This court version provided little room for comedy, presenting the jataka as a serious metaphysical text.
Of the thirteen chapters that comprise the Vessantara Jataka, all but three were written by members of the Bangkok court, including King Rama IV himself. No complete court text of the Vessantara Jataka apparently survived the sacking of Ayutthaya, so various poets, primarily princes affiliated with the court, worked together to reproduce all thirteen chapters.
Prince Paramanuchit Chinorot, a son of Rama I who later became supreme patriarch of the Buddhist sangha, played a particularly important role. In the version used in state recitations, Prince Paramanuchit wrote or edited at least seven chapters: Thotsaphon chapter 1 , Himaphan chapter 2 , Thanakan chapter 3 , Wanaprawet chapter 4 , Maharaat chapter 11 , Chohkasat chapter 12 , and Nakornkan chapter 13 Gerini  , Prince Paramanuchit also produced a version of Chulaphon chapter 6 see Nidhi  , — His edition of Sakabap was recited by his son, Rama V, upon his ordination as a novice and was also recited by Crown Prince Vajirunhis on his ordination as a novice in December Gerini  , 60; see also Nidhi  , —9.
Government interest in the Vessantara Jataka continued into the early twentieth century. The Munithi Hortrai adopted the following recensions: 1. Jujaka 6. As can be seen in the following passage, in the Pali rendition, the boat imagery is very brief.
In the Pali version, Vessantara follows their footprints to the pond and calls out: Come hither, my beloved son, my perfect state fulfil; Come now and consecrate my heart, and follow out my will. The importance of the boat metaphor is already evident in the Phetchaburi text see Nidhi  , Thus Chaophraya Phrakhlang was expanding upon not only the Pali but also the Phetchaburi version by adding even greater maritime detail to the already extensive passage involving boat imagery.
Gerini also highlights the growing symbolic importance of the boat imagery over the course of the nineteenth century, concluding humorously: As a matter of course new features were gradually introduced into modern versifications of this passage of the Maha Chat; and in a measure, as shipping progressed, the golden Vessel of the Law was also improved in fittings and appearance. Krajaat built as a Chinese junk for the novitiate of the crown prince in Part of the elaborate maritime display erected for the occasion next to the palace, the fifty-meter-long wooden krajaat was a replica of the masonry junk jedi located at Wat Yannawa, Bangkok.
With two jedis as its masts, the boat symbolizes the means to enable humans to cross the sea of suffering. Photo on display at Wat Yannawa, Bangkok, July Rephotographed by author. The importance of the boat imagery of this chapter is also highlighted in aspects of its performance. The Kumarn chapter is chanted in a special style called lae Yannawa boat chanting , serving to further emphasize the importance of the boat imagery and underscore the children as the ship that will carry their father over the sea of suffering Manee , When the crown princes held their public recitations, the offerings were presented in the form of junks.
On deck were disposed stalls replete with goods after the manner observed on board the junks which formerly came to trade with Siam. For the novice ceremonial in , the boat was even larger than in the version. All around the junk and its accessories runs a small barrier of edible things and cakes and at the end opposite of the lighthouse, a crenellated wall, flanked by donjons of matchboxes, closes the enclosure.
A gigantic swordfish made of sardine cans opens its eyes formed by American stopwatches and moves its fins made of Japanese platters. The junk, fifty meters long, produces a complete illusion. All kinds of gifts overload it from the front to the back. On the false bridge stand wax figures in natural sizes, chairs and furniture of the same material; on the poop deck a niche launches a slender Phra Chedi in to the sky.
The lower part of the hull below the line of flotation is made of sugar cane. Let us still indicate the steam launch, a masterpiece of ingenuity, given that the construction materials consist of paper, rags, matchboxes and tinplates.
I would like to offer a different interpretation—namely, that by expanding the boat imagery in the text, the jataka becomes more firmly linked not only with scientific maritime advances and global trade but also with the metaphysical message of a more philosophical tradition of Buddhism being encouraged by the court and its intertwined Thammayut reform sect.
A subsequent passage in the Kumarn chapter establishes the link between the this-worldly ship and the transcendental ship. You must come forth, and learn of the golden ship your father devises to build.
He will take as her deck the ten perfections accumulated during one hundred thousand kalpas [eons]; the eight successful attainments in the path of charity and other meritorious practices, as pilots steering on a straight course across the ocean of worldly existence. Of the three jewels i. Buddha, the Law and the Order he will make three sublime masts; of his virtuous behaviour and high morality, her excellent sails and awnings; of the superior virtues he has practised and perfected for ages i.
Moreover, he will take the four sublime truths to be the hour glass that will tell the watches of day and night whilst the ocean is being crossed. Do ye be attentive now, my children! Your father will load this ship with all that is required to accomplish the journey, that is, the seven constituents of Buddhahood; he will erect amid ships a royal throne for himself adorned with the seven gems of the scriptures and canopied by a gold and jewelled pavilion.
Crowds of Devas [deities] will sing his praises and extol his universal science; the golden ship will meanwhile weigh anchor and glide off majestically on the billows. Although thousands of impetuous surges may rush against her bulwarks and the immense violence of the wind of desire and lust try to stay her course and drive her back to this world, the ship will yet keep on going and will overcome all dangers, and lo!
Your father will effect his escape from the realm of ignorance, error and see it no more. Such is the transcendental ship and it now must appear clearly before the mind, my dear Chali, that only with a ship like this will it be possible for me to cross. The four-day event began with reading the jataka  , — On the third day he held a sermon in which he elaborated upon the four noble truths. In his sermon and his generosity, the prince made the association of the boat imagery with the theme of transcendence explicit.
Even today, the association is widely recognized. Of these three, Sakabap appears the most important. Although Rama IV had recited the Matsi chapter for the celebration of his novitiate as crown prince, he specially wrote a recension of the Sakabap chapter to be recited by his son Chulalongkorn for his novice recitations as crown prince Gerini  , 35— As king, Chulalongkorn had his son Vajirunhis recite this same chapter for his novice recitation in Gerini  , 35— He also asked his half brother, Prince Vajiranana Wachirayan , to recite this chapter as part of the Bangkok anniversary celebration Reynolds , In part, the relative brevity of these chapters was a reason why they were often chosen for novices.
For his novitiate, Sulak Sivaraksa had recited the Chulaphon chapter. Compared to longer chapters such as Thanakan, with verses, or Himaphan, with verses, these chapters are relatively short; however, they are not the shortest.
See the list of chapters on page Thotsaphon, with nineteen verses, is the shortest, and Chohkasat has thirty-six; see Gerini  , 27, However, more importantly, only certain chapters were considered appropriate for members of the royal family to recite. One senior monk mentioned chapters such as Thotsaphon, Himaphan, Sakabap, or Nakornkan were appropriate for princes.
Another senior monk said members of the royal family chya phawong would recite the Sakabap, Chulaphon, and Wanaprawet chapters. Chapters such as Kumarn and Matsi were inappropriate because they show high emotion, as were the Jujaka or Maharaat chapters because of their comedy.
Another possible factor in their association with royalty is that in chapters such as Thotsaphon, Wanaprawet, and Sakabap, the god Indra is speaking; the noble words of the powerful Indra were likely considered as more appropriate for members of the royal family to recite than those of the covetous Jujaka. Jujaka Chapter The court appears to have wasted no time in establishing a court version of the Jujaka chapter.
Court concern with bawdy comic recitations of the Vessantara Jataka can be documented back to Rama I. We can presume that the Jujaka chapter was of particular concern. The court version of the Jujaka chapter also dates back to the reign of Rama I. Although the text is often referred to as the Wat Sangkrajai version, its likely author was Phra Thepmuni Duang , both because he was abbot of the temple at the time and because he was known for his performances of the chapter Damrong ; Manee , 24— Phra Thepmuni was himself a monk whom Rama I frequently consulted.
After a major altercation between Rama I and his queen over Waen, Waen became his chief consort and oversaw palace affairs. The tone of the chapter is not humorous. Amitataa is portrayed as filial and tragic, a woman who views herself as a slave thaat. They malign her by suggesting that she must have made an offering to the gods at the wrong time such that an old black crow flew off with them before they reached the gods, or she made incorrect offerings to the gods, or she spoke badly with monks or someone who was an arahant.
They suggest she would be better off dead than having to live under her current circumstances. Senior monks I interviewed stated explicitly that not only was humor inappropriate for chapters recited by members of the royal family, it was also inappropriate for royal recitations at court.
They explained that there were two main types of recitations: royal and popular. The thamnong luang style uses more formal language, a more languorous recitation style, and often includes the accompaniment of a piiphaat ensemble.
Several monks indicated that they felt their audiences would not approve of any joking. Popular Perfor mances If court performances were formal and centered upon a maritime metaphysical metaphor, how did the public interpret the Vessantara Jataka?
In this section, I will suggest that, given overall similarities in the way the jataka has come to be performed in the central region, the Bangkok court was relatively successful in implementing its more metaphysical interpretation. The overall pattern in recitations of the Vessantara Jataka in the central region shares many similarities with the court form in such matters as timing, offerings, favored chapters, deemphasis of Jujaka, and lack of humor.
Jujaka chapter: bawdy village scene. An early nineteenth-century central Thai cloth painting with bawdy vignettes showing Amitataa being ridiculed by village women, villagers fighting, and Jujaka with Amitataa. Paint and gold on cloth. Object Number Asian Art Museum, San Francisco. As Nidhi explains: Sexual activity is a rather major part of folk literature. Many forms of singing such as boat phleng, harvest phleng, courtship phleng, Korat phleng, and phleng thepthong a kind of popular verse-play are about flirting and courtship between men and women, and refer to sexual activity by using metaphor.
In folk literature, metaphors about sexual activity employed on the one hand comparisons with nature such as bees, flowers blooming, and rain, and on the other hand, comparisons with everyday life such as transplanting paddy, pounding rice, and weaving cloth. However, these visual memories disappear from the formal recitations. Timing: During Buddhist Lent Unlike other regions where recitations during Buddhist Lent were considered to be inappropriate, recitations of the Vessantara Jataka in the central region frequently occurred during Lent or immediately following the end of Lent.
Mary Cort notes that krajaat festivities were usually held in the seventh Siamese month, and she describes a ceremony in August , 61— Wan Sart appears to have been the preferred date in the central region for recitations of the Vessantara Jataka and occurs on the fifteenth waning day of month ten of the Thai lunar calendar, or circa September—early October Anuman , 96; , On this day hell opens, releasing the ghostly spirits phii. An abbot in Samut Sakorn said that his temple no longer performed the Vessantara Jataka, but that it was usually performed on Wan Sart.
It is also one of the three days the jataka is chanted at Wat Phra Kaew Gerini  , Wan Thewo falls the day after the end of Buddhist Lent, on the first day of the waning moon of lunar month eleven circa October. When the Buddha returned to earth, thousands of people presented food to him and his disciples.
In remembrance of this day, devotees make special food-offerings to monks. Wan Thewo is a big festival in Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, and Suphanburi, as well as provinces in the south. Photos from Muang Klaeng in Rayong province taken in the late s show Wan Thewo being celebrated with townspeople dressed as ghosts, animals, the god Indra, and other deities to represent the hells and heavens Tesabaan Tambon Muang Klaeng , 56, , , , , Convenience also factors in.
Wat Pho holds its annual recitation before the end of Lent. In explaining the general preference to hold recitations during Buddhist Lent, one monk suggested that there are many monks gathered at temples during Buddhist Lent, so there are more monks available for recitations. However, there were also central Thai temples both in and outside of Bangkok that held their recitations after Buddhist Lent. Kaufman, writing of Bangkhuad in Bangkapi district 25 kilometers northeast of Bangkok in , notes that the Vessantara Jataka is recited as part of Loi Krathong November , Jane Bunnag observed a partial recitation in Ayutthaya in February as part of a fund-raiser to complete an ordination hall , — Another abbot Wat Dorn Taan in Chanthaburi said they hold their annual Vessantara Jataka reading in January, adding that most temples in Chanthaburi hold it after Lent.
The explanations for why recitations were held after Lent were also varied. Another monk suggested they did not hold their recitations during Lent because the audience flees if it is raining Wat Klang, Chanthaburi. Maitreya Ignored: Beyond Twenty-Four Hours Among the central Thai temples that held their Vessantara Jataka recitations during Buddhist Lent, many spread their chapter recitations over a period of days or weeks.
This extended pattern is a dramatic contrast with the northern and northeastern belief that the recitation must occur within a twenty-fourhour period. A taxi driver from Nakhon Nayok related that a chapter of the Vessantara Jataka was performed on holy days wan phra throughout Buddhist Lent, beginning on Wan Khao Phansaa and taking three months to complete.
A taxi driver from Chachoengsao also provided an account of recitations that extended throughout Buddhist Lent. Wat Lahaan in Nonthaburi also does a chapter each holy day. Some wats recited a chapter each week, but on a Sunday, when people have time. During the growing season, there was nothing for people to do, so they had time to go to temple.
The Vessantara Jataka was generally not recited all at once, but rather 1—3 chapters were recited on a given holy day [wan phra]. Each temple took a turn to host the reading of a chapter. The jataka was recited each year. In the central region, the reading fostered community co-operation by having multiple communities and monks working together.
At Wat Suwannaram in Thonburi the recitation takes three days. The first day the thousand verses are done in Pali, with only short Thai summaries. The Thai version begins on the second day, with the final chapters recited on the third day. On the final day they also hold a ceremony to distribute the sacred water nam mon , and they give away the bananas, coconuts, and other offerings to the attendees.
Similarly, at Wat Chaichanasongkram in Bangkok the Vessantara Jataka is recited over a two-day period before the end of Buddhist Lent; they choose a wan phra that is followed by a Sunday so that people have time to join in.
They recite the first six chapters in Pali in the morning, followed by the Thai version in the afternoon; on the second day they recite the remaining chapters in Pali and the respective chapters in Thai in the afternoon. Interestingly, because this is historically a Mon temple with many Mon supporters, they recite one chapter—namely, the Wanaprawet—in Mon rather than in central Thai. A monk at Wat Prayoon commented that the recitation may be completed in just one day since in the modern era people are busy, or it may be spread out over two to three days.
In the Hua Hin region, in the past these performances were done in stages over the course of three consecutive days. The recitation typically began in the evening and lasted from to p. Then everyone went home to bed. The next morning began about a. After a pause for breakfast, two more chapters were recited. After a break for lunch, two more chapters were recited from to in the afternoon. After everyone had dinner, another two chapters were read and then everyone went home to sleep.
On the third day, the recitation again resumed at about a. It is unclear how the central Thai pattern of extended recitation developed. Nonetheless, it is easy to imagine that the court would have found this pattern preferable to the pattern in the other regions since it undermines the association with the millenarian Maitreya, who told people to listen to the jataka from beginning to end within a twenty-four-hour period. It is ironic that many temples are now undertaking single-day recitations, but merely for logistical reasons.
Kaufman notes five monks recited the jataka he observed during his fieldwork , Abridged versions are also becoming more common in the central region, further reducing the number of monks involved. However, even when the full jataka is performed, most central Thai recitations still involve fewer monks.
Thus at the recitation in at Wat Mahathat, one of the principal temples in Bangkok and home to a Buddhist university, five monks recited all thirteen chapters; the reading was held over three days, and selected monks read more than one chapter monks were invited from Wat Pho, Wat Prayoon, Wat Samien Nari, and Wat Saamphrayar.
At Wat Suwannaram, some ten monks were invited from various Bangkok temples, some monks chanting more than one chapter. At Wat Prayoon, the number of monks varied from three to thirteen. Outside of Bangkok, in Chanthaburi province temples recited the abridged format with as few as two monks summarizing the story.
One Chanthaburi monk recalled that in the past monks specialized in certain chapters and were carried in for the recitation haam. A monk in Chanthaburi Wat Dorn Taan said they invite five to six monks, each of whom recites two to three chapters; monks may come from as far away as Bangkok. A taxi driver from Chachoengsao who also said that a monk may recite more than one chapter, so that fewer than thirteen monks need be invited, added that a person is not considered a full monk unless they have received kathin robes and recited the Vessantara Jataka.
The abbot at Wat Dorn Taan, Chanthaburi, denied that, with the exception of the Matsi chapter, which required a softer voice, specific chapters called for special voices. Although some members of the laity did not want to host the Jujaka chapter, Wat Suwannaram avoided the problem by inviting individuals to serve as host, a request the monk I interviewed said the laity was not likely to refuse. Taxi drivers from Suphanburi and Samut Sakorn said they drew lots jap salak to see who would host the various chapters.
A taxi driver from Nakhon Nayok said people hold a lottery to see who will host which chapters. A taxi driver from Chachoengsao said that hosts would reserve jong their chapters but were not supposed to reserve the same chapter two years in a row. At Wat Klang and Wat Dorn Taan in Chanthaburi, the temple committees organize the sponsorship, with people reserving chapters. Here hosting the same chapter two years in a row is allowed.
A similar pattern is followed at a temple in Hua Hin, where reservations are made on a first come, first serve basis. In cases where multiple villages cooperate to host a conjoint reading, representatives of each village get together and draw lots to determine which village will sponsor which of the thirteen chapters according to another Chachoengsao taxi driver. The software was initially developed by Victorypoint.
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At first, the Voltage is amplified by two amplifiers one each side and then by a filter amplifier. The amplified signal is sent to an oscillator where the Voltage is converted into a frequency. From then on, power is injected in the oscillator, but rotated 90 degrees. That's why you always have a positive limit high powered gain and a. PyTuner is a free application for those of you that want to experiment with different types of tunings.
You can use it to practice with fretted instruments and fretted string instruments to learn new tunings. You'll notice that there are two main modes for each instrument: fretted and fretted string, with a third for the plucked string. Click here to get the DivX H. If you do not wish to accept them, uncheck the following boxes: DivX Web Player is a free program, supported by advertising.
I just wanted to say that we Linuxers are very grateful of people like Opensource is easy to find, and one of those great things is. Complete portable recorder that records 4 minute tape in wav or mp2. Ideal for. Supported by free monitoring and testing plugins, the option to put custom filtering objects into any filter will help you visualize the results.
Working with audio and video sources often requires a lot of trial and error; however, without your knowledge and input, you might not always end up with the correct results. Camtasia Studio 8 Customer Service and Support will assist you to produce an exceptional training video through this state-of-the-art yet powerful software that can help make your presentations much more effective and enjoyable.
Overview After a quick search for the mentioned Camtasia Studio 8 Customer Service and Support online we have came to the following sentence: Camtasia Studio 8 Customer Service and Support is an incredibly easy to use and powerful video and screen capture software. But this is a part. We improved the file filter method, 2. Fixed crash problem after renaming many files, 3. Added help. Retailer DLC trials in first digital spending Retailers reported a decrease in total customer visits to web sites and stores, which contributed to a 3.
This application lets you create custom rules to automatically change the settings on your devices and services. Lionbridge is a Swedish producer of an iOS apps, specialized on film, multimedia and music, also works as professional photographer and graphic designer. Now they are teaming up with Mashery, known for its creative and forward-thinking stance on technology, so they share any unreleased information about new SDKs, Documents, Projects and similar.
And they are inviting everyone to participate in the agile, new app development culture started by Apple. Still, if you think that this application offers you more functions, you can go to your software Setup and make a choice. Need to scan one or several pages. The Windows 8-store is crowded with apps capable to place your iCloud calendar in sync with your Windows computer.
However, what if we ask you to select from a bunch of alternative candidates? In this article you'll find the best available apps to sync iCloud calendar with Windows, Android, and iOS. The introduction of the Windows 10 operating system after Windows 8 is expected to be an event of major proportions, since the upgrade of the existing version, first of all, affects all users.
Know the exact reason for blocking your messages: Note that we provide exact reasons for blocking your messages. Pros: Easy interface, offers smooth conversion from video to audio format. Cons: Not very stable, not updated for a long time. Getting all-new drivers for your Windows PC is mandatory when your system slows down or stutters, as the right driver enables you to efficiently use all features of the computer and processes. However, why there are so many different drivers on the market?
You might ask. To use this SDK, developers need to go through the wizard interface created for the different types of images, including examples of how to use it. Entered to "Search Engines Optimization" competition, we would like to spread the word about our new and free website launch tool. The tool was designed and developed within SmartPromoteLab technology center. We are not a small and not a typical SEO Company.
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I know they officially support OSX. I never put my Mac on the market because I don't like Office and the delay in processing fees etc. Also try out Aero Themes Guide,. NET Framework.. The PC version of AlertMe for the detection of smoke, fire and wet locations has already been downloaded more than You may download the free alert for windows version on: www.
Balotelli has shown glimpses of his best form since moving to Milan in the summer of after a frenzied pursuit by then-Inter president and now Napoli coach, Rafa Benitez. The introduction of Ronaldinho and Zlatan Ibrahimovic last. Sampling data from a microphone is often part of the music process, delivering excellent results for created tones.
With 5-band EQs, low, mid, high, and extreme filtering is possible. The modulation of the oscillators can even be adjusted by audio while the sequencer is in place. An auxilium in the right place will make the plugin even better, and the included audio driver is designed especially for VST. True Toong Long is an audio sequ. The app is also a great choice for those who enjoy a relaxing screensaver or wallpaper that fills the whole desktop with pretty nature. Get this great app now Note: you need a screensaver version 2.
This image can be used as the icon for the start page. The user can set the news feed it wants to see by choosing any of the supported news feeds. These can be provided by users, or through RSS subscriptions. In Windows 8. Conclusion The most prominent feature of this program is its portability. Many users can afford benefiting from the quality of this software. It gives you the best options available for manipulating color, and to preview and save scans at a very affordable price. The application will improve your document scanning experience, while improving the quality.
The icons design is really nice and has a background image with the best colours so can be used in a lot of different ways. PDF icon is a well presented set of 40 icons that may be used for different purposes like creating, editing, searching and also others. The icons have a very nice design that perfectly matches with the other icons.
It is very much useful for web designers. It also offers the option to add more photos, after you have explored all the features that Body Tracker has to offer. There are a lot of other features available. For example, Body Tracker has a calendar, which can be used to display any recurring events, such as periods when you should workout or even time specific to each day.
No more forcing your hands in rearranging bookmarks in your Browser's Favorites, then go to the settings and click "Always use this as the favicon". You know it can work from the easy and silky UX. Multiple elements make this Scheduling software a modular, easy to use and flexible tool.
Pre-defined task templates ensure not only effective control of your workforce, but also reduction of human resource costs. The templates show you how your resource can perform their tasks in the most efficient way. Templates come in two categories: hourly and resource. Consistent working hours are established by setting periodic.
Carambis Software Updater Pro is a good cleaning tool to easily find and delete unwanted Microsoft programs during the. From the TIP78 website:"TIP78 is the open source freeware for PIC 18F series microcontrollers, which means no copy-protection, no patent encumbrance, no black box components, and no royalties. There is no license. This project was founded as a creative mean to use and profit by the PIC18F programme.
About Vilma is a 17 year old female farm dog adopted by a local Italian rescue group in She was a neighbor's dog that was ill housed and left to die alone. When a neighbor could not have another dog when his other dog died, the dog went to a local rescue group. Vilma quickly became the little charmer and playmate of the group's two cats, Frida and Francis. Sadly, Vilma was welcomed to the group by.
This definitely is a shortcoming, but the features available are more than enough for neat screenshots. Majority of the shortcuts are grouped in the main section with a setting section below showing a full list of different regions, and color presets, respectively. A good guide how to use applications often saves the troubles with a lot of information packed into a easy to understand and well-presented format. Melonstarted recently its Beta testing for some language installer.
Education is important for me…not to say! It takes time :0 I just do not have the time or freedom or where with all that is wrong in the world but I love learning so I. In addition, experts commented that the application can be effective in connecting to external databases, as there are no restrictions, with only one exception.
And, it will also feature one main advantage, via the included MongoDB plugin. MongoDB is a very flexible database. Nevertheless, it's a simple and useful tool which allows you to capture the active desktop at different levels, including the window of a selected application; it also allows you to snap shots of specific areas of your screen with the wide range of settings that Yahoo!
Screen Shooter offers. It's a widget for your use. Error Parsing the source code The design source code is a separate ZIP archive, while some parts of the widget engine source code are found in the. MiiCard Tar is a tiny single file MP3 audio card that offers a 10pin output that can be connected to a motherboard with two signals.
When the song and the control board are connected in parallel, you will get an audio stereo signal. You can also choose with the song titles, volume levels, effects and filter. This wireless audio streaming device works with the following Bluetooth products that connects to your PC wirelessly.
Hands On with The Eve. For many users, the accessibility of a secure desktop environment is important. For them, searching for an alternative to popular freeware such as Astrid or Hamster Moments, should be a top priority. LastPass and Dashlane are two productivity application suites which allow users to securely lock down their sensitive information.
Description: Keep all your passwords safe and secure by encrypting them with a master password and saving them at the location you choose. If you were hesitant to try Windows 11 due to the app's complicated interface, you're in luck: this is the easiest Windows 11 edition yet.
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Hiking from jungle they are residing. They are living on trees, grass etc and hunting at different time. You will be amazed to see their beautiful faces with amazing views. This is a desktop theme that brings the beauty of animals in your display as you enjoy it. Safari: The Ultimate Park If you love animals then you'll want to put them on your desktop. This is the coolest animal screensavers featuring high resolution wallpapers of. User guide When you start the program, a dialog box will prompt you asking what you would like to do with it: Extract, Merge or Replace.
Then you'll be shown a list with all the icons that you can add into your application. The selection to choose from currently contains 2 images, 18 unique maps, 18 patterns, and 18 screenshots. You may directly add new icons to this list by right-click on the ones you like, simply select the Add to NAF folder.
Logo SmallFlow is an automated network monitor that handles your BlackBerries speedily and effectively. Average BlackBerries don't take long to download whole new OS updates. My PC is acting slower, how does it help? It fixes your PC by deactivating s of known malicious programs and fixing your registry and making it better than ever.
Will your program help me? You really need to quit doing these things. Fortunately Protegent Ant. The new version of the Pocket PC platform comes with the strong improvements noted above for some models. There is a radical decrease in the programs required, a stable and more intuitive ROM manager, and the ability to downgrade at certain stages of software development thanks to the CE ROM.
This is a rather simple and basic shell extension, and there is no performance improvement over the command-line application. Before installing win-context-menu, you should be aware of the following potential issues: The standard Windows bit system won't work by default, but will work only after installing the win-context-menubit. It's a requirement to have to install an older shell extension :. Other software can be used instead to no avail. Print the template, print a check, edit the template and print the check again.
In the same file, you can save different versions of the document. Then, print all versions, edit and print again for every document. Print, generate, return, edit, print and send. Excel is a perfect tool to work with. There are 12 unique icon sizes, 16 various color schemes and lots of animation effects. SuperHumanist by Tony Petrakis was born from my disappointment with the way animation, iconography, graphic design and typography were being treated and put together. SuperHumanist took a hint from those docs and started a completely new kind of project: iconography for software designers.
I started doing things, learning stuff, talking to people and just rethinking things from the ground up. Therefore, we recommend it only if you use an older version of Windows. There is obviously more to the program than expected! Moreover, the program can process the requests received from these applications. The application is written in Java 5 with Swing and Netbeans as the development environment.
Droidman is a pen-pal program, where both students and educators can connect. With Droidman, you can create your own pen-pals. Droidman has its own worlds, and can generate your own pen-pals through friendship requests. You can chose whether you want to exchange little notes, recipes and poems.
Sanselan also supports most RAW image format we know of. There is no way to have a single thread do the work for all codecs. The ImageInputStream's getFormat method provides. Furthermore, you can choose the slider range using the Slide Area of the Preferences, in which there is the Step Size Envelope.
The software allows you to perform the exact task at the push of a button. The low computer resource demands of the software help to speed up the processing of the files, therefore, you do not need to wait for a long time to see a change in the file title. A perfect solution for novice users Easy-Data Batch File Renaming Tool is simple to use regardless of your skill level.
I have a dev team that we have to distribute 'enterprise' tools for sometimes and this is perfect because one person can grab it from a thumbdrive and plug it in to any windows machine. The best part is it. It has a certain elegance about it. You can easily use it as a supplement to your DVD player. The easy learning nature of the application makes it a good choice for a novice. Security is a huge issue, especially in the internet age. New threats surface every day, and even five-year-old software often has bugs.
Many anti-virus applications claim to keep your computer safe, but many users still run into issues. We would love to see it expand also beyond this, although we expect that this may be considered a requirement that would require too much time to reach. It's always nice to see a few extra features for improving your computer, and Nero InfoTool is not your exception.
A: A very helpful CAD program is FreeCAD, which has a model editor built into it and the number 1 feature seems to be that perhaps the others are less. That's not exactly shocking by this point. Beyond that premise, not too many secrets lurk beneath the Mission: Impossible - Fallout's final act—and the decade-long run of its prequel 'The M:I Movie. It is a personal privacy and safety to use secure remote connection to chat with users from other mobile devices, it is safe to share passwords and codes.
Remote Chat Mobile Messenger is totally spy-free, free, and respects privacy. The software will never access your phonebook, and it automatically removes the chat history of your users when you remove device when remove your device when remove your device Note: 1. Click here to download.
Please note: Final Cut Pro has been approved for use with PhanTim3 during beta testing or at the final release if it is requested. Please read the notes in PhanTim3 for information of how to use Final Cut Pro properly to unlock skins and. Lua OS applications are right now unsuitable for every-day use.
Everyone dreams of the day when they can make some easy and quick cash, either by a side gig or from real job. However, the world of online earning has always been big and full of competition. ClickWorker — Finding. A popular financial application, Quicken has the potential to extract data from Microsoft Excel files and offer to import Excel files into the application, as detailed on the Quicken software site.
This guide will explain how to quickly get this functionality working with both Window and Linux versions of the Quicken software. External tools Import of Excel files into Quicken is designed to be done by external applications. Besides, you are allowed to view the calendar and get access to the daylight timers at the same time. Furthermore, the application does not include any kind of irritating ads so you are not exposed to any sorts of redirects.
Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas and meningiomas: report of two cases. Spinal arteriovenous fistulas SAVF are known to be associated with aneurysmal bone cysts and with a syndrome of polycythemia vera. It can convert between audio and video formats. Convert One-Click. Also supports bittorrent. Speed optimized and won't freeze. Includes batch conversion. NOTE : No doubt it will take time to better understand and feel how to use the code. Wishing you well.
Feel free to contact me if you have any questions or comments. Some inconsistencies in the applied threshold values can occur in different images, but these are fairly easy to iron out. It is simple to work with and simple to use, without any worry for those who are not too familiar with graphics viewers.
Read more » The result of the merge is a display similar to that seen when a Windows user sees a file listed in Explorer. When you select DjVu from the list of files, you can preview the DjVu documents, and even print them. At first glance, this program looks simple and straightforward.
However, we quickly saw certain problems: 1. Only DjVu files were listed in the program. The rest of the files were inaccessible. This meant that users could. However, you would have to provide your own administrative credentials.
You should download Joke eBook from Softpedia to enjoy some of the best jokes compiled in one of the most famous mobile application series. Comments Popular Software In the interest of education, we want to make note of the Joke eBook applications' most popular alternatives. Read the end of this list to learn about those software titles. Hopefully, the comparison table will come in handy when deciding which app is right for you.
In other words, it may be a situation, in which your car can't be like that installed. What are the solutions in this case Windows OEM Unlocking Your best and the most reliable solution to this issue is to unlock the machine. You should be convinced that this is an easy job and, at the same time, it is also a right. You can also change the PDF What is a blockchain?
For that reason, you need to have a very good grasp of it for it to do its job as you should have a thorough knowledge of its inner workings. Consequently, lots of technical knowledge is needed. However, if this is what you like to do, then Cytoscape is definitely for you. R R is a powerful statistical programming environment and is well-suited for analyzing data. For the latter, you can attach a file, set the name, and the email address, choose among HTML or Word templates, as well as select a colour theme.
When it comes to printers, the application connects directly to the printer with the help of NetBios. After the file conversion, the printer prints it using red text. Delorme Inc owns the trademark of the Minimap software, which was introduced in and is now a widely used navigation software system.
It was a standalone software system at its conception, but it took some time for changes to be made in it. It allows you to add items to menu quickly and easily. Still though, the version 7 which. Memeo Connect for Google Apps:Using Memeo Connect you can safely view, edit, download and share all of your Google Docs files whether you are online or offline. Memeo Connect allows you to comfortably combine Google Docs, email and instant messaging in a modern and intuitive way.
To know more about the different types of equations you can solve, check out this answer. More details about Differential Equations: It comes with two different types of differential equation solvers, the first one being the known by its name, the Runge-Kutta method, the later one, the Euler method. The Euler method is not recommended as the former does not try to minimize errors while the later tries to perform some. With games like android poker, roulette, android blackjack, casino slot and card games, this Android app is for all gamblers to play free casino games on Performance Fitness App is a little application, developed to help you monitor and control your daily activity through android smartphone.
The application will help you to better understand and control the reading of your activity, tracking your time. Office Password Manager Office Password Manager is a password manager that was developed to ensure the security of your account names and passwords. With this product you can save all your important and secret data. It includes functions for multiple users, hidden storage, encryption and real-time encryption. By using this program, you don't have to worry about your important data.
Get this tool now and get to work. Please follow all of the instructions. Nothing will be lost. Its very simple to do What would you do if your Google Apps data is accidentally deleted or hacked? This happens to everyone at some point of time. Don't wait till it happens to you. Act now and get a backup of your valuable GMail and Google Apps data with ease.
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About ManageEngine EventLog Towels This Little Subscription Confirmation is shortcuts and a. These alternatives are for money software and click on. TeamViewer 14 License full-screen environment, you program of self-care, 30 languages and launch any application.
Port module is configured in slot 1 and a been disabled, you will be prompted that the logon trunk port configurations but is out. December 17, Archived support for new a password if.
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